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31 July 2011

The Meaning of Group Stage for Indonesian Football

Ever since new Republic of Indonesia has been established, the country has never qualified into the FIFA World Cup (TM) final tournaments. As a country with millions of enthusiastic football fans, which have made football as the most popular show, it is quite ironical. Even in some editions Indonesia did not participate and withdrew due to particular reasons.

Football development in Indonesia has been intriguing. The country is struggling to build a strong characteristic that is believed to be one of key elements to success in the game's world stage. Controversies highlight almost every time when the growth is promising. Indonesia, as some global experts conclude having good football talents, should have done better.

En route Brazil 2014 Indonesia has completed the first pave toward the final tournament three years to go by eliminating Turkmenistan through, what the fifa.com writes, a seven-goal thriller making 4-3 final result at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, Senayan, Jakarta. It must be a good sign after another impressive performance in the 2010 AFF Cup, despite losing to Malaysia in the final matches.

Having qualified to the group stage, it will mean a six-golden opportunity to compete with other three contries in a home-and-away system, will have a valuable meaning to show the audience about the development and the presence of Indonesia in the world football. In fact, the country used to go further in an "almost there" situation in the Mexico '86 campaign.





Apart from which teams to be paired in the first round group stage, Indonesia is going to have time to take deeper breathe than that of sound knock-off situation. Bitter experience in the South Africa 2010 qualifiers has been eventually forgotten.

Playing the best sides in the continent is very hard. Yet, it is a dream for both the squads and the fans. It must be a chalenging moment for the players to be head-to-head with global figures who defend, i.e., Korea Republic, Iran, Japan, or Australia. For the fans, it is going to be an interesting show at the stadium to watch world-class footballers.

While Brazil is still as far as its geographical location, to be among the best teams in Asia should be step ahead toward better reputation. Because football is part of people's daily topics, the group stage participation can be a medium through which glory of nation finds its momentum.

Good luck, Merah-Putih. All Indonesian football people pray the best for you...

28 July 2011

2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil - CONMEBOL Qualifiers

Matchday 1 (7 Oktober 2011)
Uruguay v Bolivia
Peru v Paraguay
Argentina v Chile
Ekuador v Venezuela

Matchday 2 (11 Oktober 2011)
Venezuela v Argentina
Paraguay v Uruguay
Chile v Peru
Bolivia v Kolombia

Matchday 3 (11 Nopember 2011)
Argentina v Bolivia
Paraguay v Ekuador
Uruguay v Chile
Kolombia v Venezuela

Matchday 4 (15 Nopember 2011)
Kolombia v Argentina
Venezuela v Bolivia
Chile v Paraguay
Ekuador v Peru

Matchday 5 (2-3 Juni 2012)
Argentina v Ekuador
Bolivia v Chile
Peru v Kolombia
Uruguay v Venezuela

Matchday 6 (9-10 Juni 2012)
Bolivia v Paraguay
Venezuela v Chile
Uruguay v Peru
Ekuador v Kolombia

Matchday 7 (7 September 2012)
Kolombia v Uruguay
Ekuador v Bolivia
Argentina v Paraguay
Peru v Venezuela

Matchday 8 (11 September 2012)
Peru v Argentina
Uruguay v Ekuador
Chile v Kolombia
Paraguay v Venezuela

Matchday 9 (12 Oktober 2012)
Argentina v Uruguay
Kolombia v Paraguay
Ekuador v Chile
Bolivia v Peru

Matchday 10 (16 Oktober 2012)
Bolivia v Uruguay
Paraguay v Peru
Chile v Argentina
Venezuela v Ekuador

Matchday 11 (22 Maret 2013)
Argentina v Venezuela
Uruguay v Paraguay
Peru v Chile
Kolombia v Bolivia

Matchday 12 (26 Maret 2013)
Bolivia v Argentina
Ekuador v Paraguay
Chile v Uruguay
Venezuela v Kolombia

Matchday 13 (7 Juni 2013)
Argentina v Kolombia
Bolivia v Venezuela
Paraguay v Chile
Peru v Ekuador

Matchday 14 (11 Juni 2013)
Ekuador v Argentina
Chile v Bolivia
Kolombia v Peru
Venezuela v Uruguay

Matchday 15 (8 September 2013)
Paraguay v Bolivia
Chile v Venezuela
Peru v Uruguay
Kolombia v Ekuador

Matchday 16 (10 September 2013)
Uruguay v Kolombia
Bolivia v Ekuador
Paraguay v Argentina
Venezuela v Peru

Matchday 17 (11 Oktober 2013)
Argentina v Peru
Ekuador v Uruguay
Kolombia v Chile
Venezuela v Paraguay

Matchday 18 (15 Oktober 2013)
Uruguay v Argentina
Paraguay v Kolombia
Chile v Ekuador
Peru v Bolivia

Source: 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil: Preliminary Competition Format & Drawing Procedures
South American Zone, 20 Mei 2011

25 July 2011

It's never too late to mend the broken wings, Garuda

Rights to impose opinions are among those highlights of human rights campaign in post-World War II era. But in case of Indonesia, freedom to speak only came into reality in 1998, when mass demonstrations forced President Soeharto, the founder of "New Order" to step down his presidency. It was monetary crisis, which triggered the "revolution" -- though I doubted it as the "pure" people's power as political interests were eventually revealed. Post-Soeharto era Indonesia has been tested for several occasions of a "real" democratic climate. More freedoms were given to the people in which almost all elements of the nation had the right to speak and to do anything in the name of democracy.

In practice, democracy has been something "too angelical" for a nation with heterogeneous backgrounds, where plenty of needs must be fulfilled. As competition becomes more transparent, it is more difficult for new nation's leaders to lead the way the nation has set its goals toward development. The fall of the New Order has left many homeworks for bureaucrats, from foreign debts to capacity-building, from corruption to poverty, from development inequality between Java and other islands to environmental destruction.

Thirteen-year leap from the so called "1998 reform" momentum things have never got better. Even, the more "vocal" people continue to press their ideal opinions on the media opposing any controversy issued by the ongoing government. The wind of change in freedom to speak has, conversely, turned into deadly monsters that are haunting almost everybody on the seat of the government.

This phenomenon concludes that old bureaucrats were the lucky ones for their "untouchability", whereas the poor, new bureaucrats are sorrounded by complicated problems, which turn their sweet dream into a nightmare. People are now more critical in imposing their will and citizens have never again abducted to be expendable. Bureaucrats are looking like standing at the edge of a high mountain ready to plung themselves into a deep rocky abyss.

However, today's bureaucrats should not have been the enemies of the citizens have they understood their positions and the situation around them. Once they have been aware of the danger to be the citizen's "outlaws", things are going to be fine and they will perform their duties in peace and harmony. The problem is that the "Reform era" bureaucrats still act as if they were those under the "New Order" power. They keep corrupting the people's rights, violating the rules, fooling the people, and stabbing their fellow peers from behind. In deed, it is not democracy, but they have been the monsters themselves. All controversies have its focal point from recruitment. Part of individuals who are running the Indonesian bureaucracy do not have adequate quotient triangle (spiritual - emotional - intelligence). Missing one of these triangle chains will mean disaster for the nation. They keep lying to the people by acting like gods, saints, and holy persons. The have been making demons in their own blood, by drinking blood from the fellow people. They are not humans no more.

Capacity-building, competency, trust, devotion, and other positive elements are necessary to build a strong nation. Unfortunately, Indonesia has not got enough such human resources because the ongoing government still inherits the old ones. It is, perhaps, the result of revenge, hatred, or the likes, I do not know exactly, but I am sure it is something like that. Unless devoting-personalities dominate the bureaucratic seats, the nation will surely come to an epilogue chapter.

Kingdom Jenggala, River Brantas, and Ken Dedes

1) Kingdom Jenggala was one of two kingdoms (with Kingdom Kahuripan), which was equally-splitted by King Airlangga in favor of his two sons. He divided the kingdoms to show that he fairly treated the children and in order to prevent possible quarrels between them. King Airlangga asked a notable religious leader, Mpu Barada, for helping him realize his dream. Mpu Barada, a "brahmana" with great supranatural power, flied to the sky and poured water (namely "Tirta Amerta" or "holy water") to the ground, along the border-line to divide the territory into two equal portions. These two territories were then named Jenggala and Kahuripan (or Kadiri, the present day Kediri). History tells that the drop of "Tirta Amerta" magically turned into a river. The river was eventually known as River Brantas.

2) In early development, both Jenggala and Kahuripan grew equally, but as time went by, Jenggala could not grow as fast as Kahuripan. Even, Jenggala was extinct and became part of Kahuripan and no longer a kingdom. The fall of the Kingdom Jenggala was believed due to its inability to adapt the "agricultural characteristic". It is reasonable because this kingdom was situated closer to the coastal area than Kahuripan. At time, agricultural way of life dominated the Java Island, where these kingdoms were situated. It is interesting for archeologists as well as historians to find out the ruins of the Kingdom Jenggala. Nowadays, the kingdom's heritages, such as inscriptions or letters on "lontar" leaves have been rarely found.

3) Mataram, either Hindus-Mataram or Islam-Mataram, was one of the most notable kingdoms in the history of Nusantara (Archipelago). The name "mataram", according to a source, was derived from "metarum", a name of tree, which people also call it "nila". The fruits of this tree were used for coloring clothes. Another source stated that "mataram" may be derived from the word "tarumanagara". Tarumanagara was a kingdom situated in the present day West Java.

4) King Purnawarman of Tarumanagara used to ask for building a river dam at River Bagasasi. Now the place is known as Bekasi, one of regencies under the provincial territory of West Java.

5) Ken Dedes was welknown as the most beautiful princess in the era of Kadiri. She issued kings of Singhasari and Majapahit by her marriage to Ken Arok, the founder of Kingdom Singhasari. After her death, Ken Dedes was illustrated by a statue of "Prajna Paramitha". The statue is believed as the most beautiful statues inherited by the era of Singhasari and Majapahit. Unfortunately, "Prajna Paramitha" you find at "Museum Nasional Jakarta, Indonesia" is only a specimen because the original one is kept under the authority of the Dutch government at Leiden Museum, the Netherlands, which colonized the former "Dutch East Indies" for more than three centuries.

The above texts may be subject to change because a history must be studied in an in-depth analysis. History does not have an absolute conclusion because it must depend on those who tell it from his or her own point-of-view.

(Source: history interview and discussion on-coffe-dinner between Tiyo Widodo and Adrianus Kris, Semarang, 25 July 2011, according to many references).

22 July 2011

Pengentasan Kemiskinan: Lingkup Permasalahan dan Pemecahannya

Ukuran dan pelaporan kinerja sekarang ini dianggap sebagai komponen yang penting bagi akuntabilitas sektor swasta, nirlaba, maupun publik, baik di negara Kanada maupun di negara lain (Office of the Auditor General of Canada 2003; International Institute for Sustainable Development 2005; Overseas Development Institute 2006; Treasury Board of Canada 1998, 2000, 2001, 2002). Dalam prakteknya, perusahaan sektor swasta, nirlaba, dan publik semakin mendapatkan tekanan untuk mengukur kemajuan atas hasil, memiliki fleksibilitas untuk menjalankan operasi-operasi yang tepat untuk memenuhi harapan, dan melaporkan keluaran (outcomes) yang telah dicapai.

Laporan penelitian ini bermaksud untuk mengidentifikasi best practices yang nyata dan mengusulkan beberapa indikator yang dinilai berguna untuk mengukur hasil dan pengaruh inkremental yang dapat dimanfaatkan untuk memperbaiki ukuran, akuntabilitas dan pemahaman terkait dengan isu-isu pembangunan manusia. Langkah lanjutan ini penting sekali jika kekuatan dan sumber daya yang dimiliki oleh stakeholder hendak diarahkan untuk membantu untuk mengentaskan kemiskinan, dan sebuah model dengan indikator diperkenalkan untuk membantu di dalam proses ini.

Dibandingkan dengan perusahaan swasta atau nirlaba, perusahaan sektor publik lebih enggan untuk meningkatkan daya saing maupun memperbaiki pertumbuhan – institusi publik lebih bertujuan memberikan kualitas pelayanan tertinggi kepada publik dan untuk mengatur serta melaporkan hasil serta kinerja yang dicapai. Satu elemen yang signifikan dari reformasi sektor publik adalah perubahan menuju suatu pendekatan yang memberikan perhatian yang lebih besar kepada hasil yang dicapai dengan dolar wajib pajak; baik sektor swasta maupun nirlaba sama-sama menghadapi tekanan yang semakin bertambah dari stakeholder (bisnis, civil society, pemerintah, dan tenaga kerja) untuk menunjukkan hasil, khususnya dalam bidang kontribusi mereka bagi pengembangan manusia dan pengurangan kemiskinan.

Bukti terpercaya mengenai pengaruh kebijakan dan program terhadap berkurangnya angka kemiskinan dan isu-isu sosial lainnya bergantung pada tingkat pemahaman tentang perbedaan antara input, output, keluaran dan indikator. Agar dapat dipercaya oleh publik, pelaporan kinerja tentang isu-isu seperti ini perlu fokus secara lebih selektif pada pengidentifikasian ukuran-ukuran kunci kinerja dan pelibatan konstituen-konstituen kunci.

Meskipun telah banyak sekali literatur tentang pengaruh dan hasil program dan kebijakan (contoh: Behn 2003; Edwards et al. 2006; Malina dan Selto 2004; Martinez 2005; Moullin 2005; Neely 2005; Royal Statistical Society 2003); banyak pembuat kebijakan, pelaksana evaluasi program, dan stakeholder telah begitu familiar dengan literatur ini, dan siapapun yang memahai metode-metode yang tepat yang dapat digunakan untuk melakukan estimasi dan menilai pengaruh dan hasil tidaklah optimal (Marshall et al. 2004; Neely 2005; Thomas 2004). Terdapat banyak keuntungan yang dapat diperoleh pelaksana evaluasi program jika memahami literatur kajian hasil dan pengaruh. Sebagai contoh, jika stakeholder terus menyertakan ukuran-ukuran kinerja yang lebih tepat untuk membantu pelaporan akuntabilitas dan kinerja, dan pelaku evaluasi program memasukkan prinsip-prinsip dari penilaian pengaruh dan hasil di dalam evaluasi formatif maupun sumatif, maka perusahaan akan semakin kuat untuk melakukan pendekatan terhadap akuntabilitas dan ukuran kinerja pada tingkat yang strategis. Selain itu, perubahan-perubahan ini akan merespon perubahan pola pikir publik terkait dengan akuntabilitas kinerja, pada saat memberikan informasi yang lebih lengkap dan kesempatan yang lebih luas kepada manajemen perusahaan agar menciptakan pilihan-pilihan yang lebih efektif di dalam investasi program.

Sumber:
Dwyer, Rocky J. 2004. "Alleviating poverty: how do we know the scope of the problem and when we have solved it?". Saint Paul University, Canada.

Download naskah lengkapnya di SINI

Indonesia to the 2014 FIFA World Cup qualifiers

On Saturday, July 23rd 2011, Indonesian national football team is going to begin campaign toward the FIFA World Cup Brazil 2014, playing Turkmenistan in an away game. Since 1938, when the squads played under Dutch East Indies (DEI) jersey, Indonesia has never surpassed the qualifier rounds. Being in the world cup have been something to achieve all the time. Once in thepast the obsession was closely reached but double defeats to South Korea in the AFC zone's playoff final for the Mexico 1986 prevented the 'Merah-Putih' squads to join the finals. Since then, Indonesia could only be better than non-participators.

According to the late Rinus Michels, 'the father' of total football, Indonesia has plenty of good talents at youth sectors. His comment was proven by good achievements of the youth teams in several occasions, such as Danone Cup invitation, Milan youth tournament, and Arsenal youth tournament. But a misconception continues to happen. The Indonesian FA, PSSI, has not implemented a good conduct of developing a football team. There is a 'missing link' of football development from the youth to the senior levels. Most talents have been 'missing in action' before they have reached the senior level.

Negative climate of the PSSI organization also contributes the difficulty in creating a strong football team. Political interest has continued to highlight the life of Indonesian football. It is not a good climate when one group of interest claims a success and the other is to blame due to failure. In my opinion, the choice of the new management is due to political interest. The mentality of "showing-off merit" has sacrificed the growth of the country's football. The squads preparation has been in trouble due to the change of head coach from Alfred Riedl to Wim Rijsbergen. The 1974 FIFA World Cup runners-up steps up the managerial seat following the contract termination by PSSI with the Austrian trainer. Some believe that Riedl related to the former staff under the administration of Nurdin Halid, but the Djohar Arifin's PSSI claimed that Riedl had an individual contract with Nirwan Bakrie, instead of with the Organization. Well, no matter the reason of this contract termination, PSSI has not shown their professionalism in preparing the team. Then what can Rijsbergen do in several days? Or, is it the way used by PSSI to camouflage their weakness, by claiming that "we had limited times of preparing the squads" should the team loses to Turkmenistan on the week-end showpiece in Ashgabat? Or, is it the tactic of the current staff to claim their good, critical decision by replacing Riedl with Rijsbergen should the team wins the match? Of course the fans are not that stupid to believe.

Indonesian football needs persons who are willing to devote, not a sort of mercenaries who 'buy and sell' for their own benefits. If this for-profit intent continues, the World Cup is going to be something that ruis our breakfast. Even, the World Cup dream may turn into a nightmare.

21 July 2011

TQM, Definisi dan Implementasi pada Perusahaan Kecil

Definisi TQM

TQM adalah sebuah system pengelolaan yang terdiri atas tiga unit yang saling bergantung: core values, teknik, dan sarana. Core value harus didukung oleh teknik, seperti manajemen proses, benchmarking, perencanaan fokus konsumen, atau penyempurnaan tim, dan diperkuat pula dengan sarana, misalnya bagan control (control charts), untuk dapat menjadi bagian dari budaya organisasi. Sasaran yang hendak dicapai TQM adalah bertambahnya tingkat kepuasan konsumen dengan memanfaatkan sumber daya yang sesedikit mungkin. Landasan dari telaksananya TQM ialah kesanggupan perusahaan mempengaruhi budaya organisasi. Di dalam budaya organisasilah budaya kualitas (quality culture) berada. Core values yang dibahas dalam kesempatan ini adalah core values berdasarkan pendapat Bergman dan Klefsjo (2002):

-kepemimpinan yang berkomitmen dengan fokus pada keputusan basis konsumen;
-fokus yang lebih serius pada proses-proses yang memperkuat komitmen individu;
-fokus pada konsumen;
-keputusan basis fokus;
-penguatan komitmen individu.

Implementasi TQM

Implementasi TQM memerlukan perubahan organisasi secara menyeluruh. Tidak semua perusahaan mampu menjalani perubahan seperti ini, khususnya perusahaan kecil. Banyak hal yang menghambat keberhasilan organisasi di dalam menerapkan TQM, antara lain sumber daya tebatas, tingkat stabilitas rendah, dan inisiatif terbatas . Dari permasalahan ini perlu pendekatan yang lebih universal agar TQM semakin mudah diterapkan di dalam perusahaan kecil (Eskildson, 1994).

 Penerapan TQM ke dalam strategi bisnis akan membuat perusahaan terhindar dari masalah-masalah yang menyangkut program-program perubahan dengan fokus perhatian pada peran dan tanggung jawab yang berhubungan dengan proses-proses di mana peran dan tanggung jawab tersebut dilaksanakan  (Oakland, 1993).

 Perusahaan kecil diyakini memiliki keuntungan yang lebih menjanjikan jika mampu menjalankan strategi TQM karena organisasi kecil biasanya memiliki fleksibilitas struktur organisasi, kemampuan inovasi, hirarki jabatan yang sederhana, dan budaya organisasi yang kuat. Mengingat bahwa TQM memerlukan komitmen pada pihak manajemen, maka organisasi kecil akan mendapatkan keuntungan karena tindakan-tindakan yang dilakukan oleh jajaran manajemen akan lebih terarah dan terlihat jelas.

Tahap Implementasi TQM pada Perusahaan Kecil

Terdapat sepuluh tahap untuk mengimplementasikan TQM di dalam perusahaan kecil berdasarkan materi empiris dari empat studi kasus, sebagai berikut (Ghobadian dan Gallear, 1997): 1) pengakuan terhadap perlunya penerapan TQM; 2) pemahaman bersama antara manajemen dan supervisor; 3) penetapan sasaran dan tujuan demi perbaikan kualitas; 4) rencana implementasi TQM; 5) pendidikan dan pelatihan karyawan; 6) penyusunan prosedur yang sistemik; 7) penyeimbangan organisasi; 8) implementasi konsep-konsep TQM; 9) pengawasan implementasi konsep-konsep TQM; 10) usaha menuju perbaikan dengan mengulangi tahap ke-3.

Referensi

Disarikan dari "A Core Value Model for Implementing Total Quality Management in Small Organizations" (Jonas Hansson and Bengt Klefsjo

14 July 2011

Hey, What is wrong with your foot, ladies?

It is a disappointment that none of television stations in Indonesia to relay the FIFA Women's World Cup 2011 held in Germany. The tournament is the ultimate event in 2011 season for women's football. It's an irony that couple months ago the country's television televised the U-19 Women's FIFA World Cup. Indonesians who are the fans of women's football can only watch the matches from streaming videos, even running text presented by websites. Many great moments, such as the defeat of the mighty Nationalmannschaft and historic victory of the Swedes over the United States, and they all can only recorded by reading news from the official website of the tournament.

However, the above sad phenomenon must not prevent us from being big fans of women's football, supporting its future development. Having had female category, football contributes to the campaign of gender equality with particular style and characteristic.

In a large-populated country like Indonesia, where female population are dense, football can be a means to promote women participation toward equality. But, in practice, there seem no serious movement to support the development since "Galanita" (liga sepakbola wanita/women's football league) has been defunct. Once the country had a promising football competition for women in the 1980s. It was a time when the difference between male and female was more extreme. The participation of women's football in Indonesian sport development was promising by the presence of "Galanita". But then the competition discontinued itself. Since then, Indonesian women's football is drowned by the superiority of male counterparts. Unfortunately, the men's football in this country can only reach minor achievement, even in the regional stage. There is a contradictory trend between the encouragement of women's roles in daily life and the progress of women's football. What an irony it has been.

Women's football nowadays has been more popular with more competitive look. At past time, the United States frankly dominated the competition and most people only knew Mia Hamm as though nobody else compared to her. Today, people see a positive progress around the world with more well-managed footballing system. There is no guarantee that heavyweight teams like the US, Sweden, Brazil and Germany will easily overcome the game and bring victory home. The great achievement of Japan in the current World Cup is one perfect example. It can be a picture of recognition of more countries to the game. Except in some countries with strictly traditional rule on women, football associations from East to West and from North to South have began to develop their women section.

Indonesia has plenty of human resources with quite ideal situation in which women football may grow. It is a wonder that not many females are willing to play football. Compared with the situation in the 1980s, Indonesian females have more "perfect" physical condition and taller posture. The nutrition fed when they were babies have also been more adequate. But how can the country's achievement in sports in general, and football in particular, be getting worse? It is a big question, which the PSSI, the Indonesian FA, should answer immediately. Developing women football can be a solution towards playing more significant role in international stage while the men's section continues to stumble as underachievers. A good example can be sought through the experience of Sweden. The Swede men's football is still among mediocre powers despite the existence many great individuals such as Ibrahimovic, Ljungberg, Isaksson, Larsson etc. Supported by the spirit of gender equality, this country's women team is among the elites of the world football. Let we call it a compensation of the lacking success of the male sector. Indonesia can also take the similar action with much more number of female athletes available. It is going to be an interesting agenda to run down by the newly elected PSSI leadership.

13 July 2011

Reaksi Redoks

Reaksi Redoks merupakan gabungan dari dua reaksi, yaitu reaksi oksidasi dan reaksi reduksi. Dalam reaksi redoks, proses oksidasi danreduksi terjadi bersamaan. Artinya, pada saat suatu reaktan mengalami oksidasi, maka reaktan lain mengalami reduksi.

A. Konsep Reduksi dan Oksidasi

1. Konsep dan pengikatan oksigen

Pengikatan dan pelepasan oksigen didasarkan pada kemampuan gas oksigen untuk bereaksi dengan berbagai unsur membentuk suatu oksida. Menurut konsep ini, suatu zat dikatakan mengalami oksidasi jika dalam reaksinya zat ini mengikat oksigen. Dan suatu zat dikatakan mengalami reduksi jika dalam reaksinya zat ini melepaskan reaksi atom oksigen.

Contoh:
Reaksi oksidasi 4Fe + 3O --> 2FeO
Reaksi reduksi 2HgO --> 3Hg + O

2. Konsep perpindahan elektron

Berdasarkan konsep perpindahan elektron, reduksi berarti reaksi penerimaan elektron, sedangkan oksidasi berarti reaksi pelepasan elektron.

Contoh:
Reaksi oksidasi 2Cu --> 2Cu + 4e
Reaksi reduksi 2Cu + O --> 2CuO

3. Konsep perubahan bilangan oksidasi

Berdasarkan konsep ini, suatu zat dikatakan mengalami oksidasi jika dalam reaksi zat ini mengalami kenaikan bilangan oksidasi. Sementara itu, suatu zat dikatakan mengalami reduksi jika dalam reaksi zat ini mengalami penurunan bilangan oksidasi.

Setiap atom memiliki muatan yang disebut juga bilangan oksidasi, yaitu bilangan yang menyatakan banyaknya elektron yang telah dilepaskan atau oleh suatu aton dalam suatu senyawa. Bilangan oksidasi diberi tanda positif jka atom itu melepas elektron dan diberi tanda negatif jika atom itu menerima elektron.

B. Konsep Bilangan Oksidasi

Pada reaksi redoks, dikenal juga reaksi autoredoks, yaitu suatu zat berfungsi sebagai oksidator juga reduktor. Reaksi autoredoks dengan mudah dapat dijelaskan dengan konsep bilanga oksidasi. Bilangan oksidasi digunakan pula pada penamaan senyawa yang salah satu unsurnya memilikai biloks lebih dari satu.

1. Membedakan reksi redoks dan bukan redoks

Suatu reaksi redoks dapat kita bedakan dari reaksi bukan redoks denagn meliaht perubahan bilangan oksidasi pada unsur-unsur yang menyusun senyawa yang bereaksi. Jika terjadi kenaikan bilangan oksidasi, artinya unsur tersebut mengalami oksidasi dan bersifat sebagai reduktor. Sementara itu, jka terjadi penurunan bilangan oksidasi, artinya unsur tersebut mengalami reduksi dan bersifat sebagai oksidator.

2. Reaksi autoredoks

Pada beberapa reaksi redoks, zat-zat yang bertindak sebagai oksidator merupakan zat sama. Reaksi redoks seperti itu disebut reaksi autoredoks (reaksi disproporionasi).

3. Menentukan nama senyawa ionik dan kovalen

a. Penamaan senyawa ion yang unsur logamnya berbiloks lebih dari satu. Penamaan senyawa yang mengandung unsur logam berbiloks lebih dari satu macam didasarkan pada sistem stock. Caranya dengan membubuhkan angka Romawi yang sesuai dengan bilangan oksidasi logam dalam tnada kurung di belakang nama logam dan diikuti dengan nama unsur nonlogam, lalu diberi akhiran –ida.

b. Penamaan senyawa poliatomik yang unsur nonlogamnya berbiloks lebih dari satu. Umumnya senyawa ion poliatomik tersusun atas logam yang berbiloks satu jenis dan ion poliatomik yang salah satu unsurnya berbiloks lebih dari satu jenis. Penamaan senyawa ini didasarkan oleh sistem stock dengan membubuhkan angka Romawi sesuai dengan bilangan oksidasi (biloks) unsur dalam tanda kurung di belakang nama anion poliatomik.

c. Penamaan senyawa kovalen yang unsur nonlogamnya berbiloks lebih dari satu. Penamaan senyawa kovalen yang unsur nonlogamnya berbiloks lebih dari satu macam didasarkan pada sistem stock. Caranya ialah dengan menulis unsur nonlogam bermuatan positif diikuti oleh angka Romawi yang esuai dengan bilangan oksidasinya dalam tanda kurung, sedangkan unsur nonlogam bermuatan negatif diletakkan di belakang dan diberi akhiran -ide.

9 July 2011

Indonesian schooling, Sad Opera for the Poors

An evening with a neighbor on a coffee shop on the side walk of one of town's blocks, where commuters do not recognize one to another. She was talking about a mother of a child planning to go to school when the dinner was being prepared. The boy was planned to attend a secondary school for the new academic year, 2011/2012.

A sad story written down in the sky, ruining my dinning time. She told me that the mother, a poor mother living nextdoor, had a bitter morning at the school registration desk. She could not afford the school's uniform. The school's administrators asked the desk service staff not to allow discounted or allowance fee to anybody. The neighbor, who accompanied the mother to the school, told that the mother complained about the skyscrapping cost issued for the uniform. The mother is a part-time worker with no husband. She has been a single mother since the husband left the family couple years ago. The mother raises her son alone. A 500-thousand fee policy for the uniform is just, unaffordable. It is a perhaps small money for some of you, dear readers. If you think that the mother does not work for it, you are probably the meannest creatures that God has ever created. Yes, she works for it but all her bests do not seem quite good enough.

Education for All seems no more than a campaign on paper as the policy, which angelically shouts "pro-poor". In fact, the poors remain expendable. Millennium Development  Goals' dream remains a dream, which acts as a fake agitator as well as political vehicle for those holding self-interests. The initiative, whose one of its priorities is doing things for the poors, is likely a political-driven activitiy, by which the status quo earns their benefits.
Terima kasih kepada BelajarInggris.Net atas kepercayaannya memilih tulisan saya menjadi salah satu pemenang dalam Lomba Blog 2010.