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As environment gets more dirty and complex nowadays, more health disorders become apparent in society. It must be a serious problem that prohibits the health development of the affected people. Pollution has become quite severe as people sometimes show negative behaviors towards their environment. In industrial era like we are within today, it is difficult to find, for instance, fresh air with clean water place to live. Accordingly, in addition to the disease risks, stress also follows. All disorders combine to degrade the quality of life. In some future times to go, healthy environment is probably rarely found if such bad habits continue.
Disease is a pathological condition, in which functions and/or morphology of an organ is disordered. Environment is anything, which lies around the organ (dead or living things, either abstract or concrete) as well as a situation formed by interaction between elements within the nature. Environmental-based disease is a pathological condition in which function and morphological disorders of particular body organ caused by the interaction between humans and their exposed things, which have potentials to grow the disease.
Environmental-based disease has been for years a serious problem. For examples, respiratory tract infection and diarhea are the environmental-based disorders which always top chart in the ten most dangerous diseases reported by Public Health Centers in Indonesia.
According to the report of Profil Ditjen PP & PL tahun 2006, approximately 22.30% of the total infant deaths in Indonesia were caused by pneumonia, whereas the morbidity of the diarhea had risen for years; in 1996, 280 per 100 population and in 2003 rose to 347 per 1000 population. Accordingly, the environmental-based disease prevention should take account for the course and pathogenetic process in order to perform the right interventions.
The environmental components that contribute the disease pathogenesis, which become the transmitting media, include air, water, foods, animals, and human. Whereas other components with significant effect consist of behaviors, nutrition status, and knowledge.
Disease sources are those acting constant behaviors to produce disease agents. These disease agents are the environmental components that may cause disorders, either in direct or indirect manners (through the transmitters). Some of the agents include as follows: biological agents (bacteria, virus, fungi, protozoa, amoeba); chemical agents (heavy metals such Pb and Hg, pollutant waters; asphyxiants; dust and fibers (such as asbetos and silicon); and pesticides.