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23 November 2010

Candrasengkala Negarakertagama

Historical events recorded within Nagarakretagama book are typically presented in Saka calendar system, which began 78 years earlier than the Gregorian calendar. The system converts numbers into words, read from right to left. For example, in the "pupuh 74/2" the Book writes candrasangkala "saptawidjarawi" to refer the Saka year of 1287. Unlike the Gregorian calendar, candrasangkala reads the number in reverse order. So, when you mention 1287, you must begin the reading from the number 7, followed by 8, 2, and 1.

Candrasengkala Nagarakretagama also has its own month names (pupuh 17/7). The difference from the Gregorian calendar is that one month in Saka year lies between two Gregorian months, and the new calendar begins in the Gregorian March, as follows: Caitra (from March to April), Waisaka (from April to May), Jyestha (from May to June), Asadha (from June to July), Srawana (from July to August), Bhadrapada (from August to September), Aswina (from September to October), Kartika (from October to November), Margasirsa (from November to December), Pausa (from December to January), Magda (from January to February), and Phalguna (from February to March).

Candrasangkala Nagarakretagama denotes important events during the ancient era of Nusantara history. Below are events recorded by the Nagarakretagama book symbolized by candrasangkala.

Abdhidesendu (year of 1104): the rise of Rajasa dynasty
Abdhikeretasangkara (1144): the attack of Kediri Kingdom
Abdhimanusa (1144): Jayasaba is the King of Kediri
Asyadhiruda (1149): the death of Rajasa (the King of Singasari)
Tilakadrisambhu (1170): the death of Anusapati (step-son of Rajasa/Ken Arok)
Rasaparwwatenduma (1176): Kertanegara coronation as Singasari King
Astaikana (1180): Sastrajaya is the King of Kediri
Kananawaniksiti (1190): the death of Wisnuwardhana
Bhujagosasiksaya (1192): the rebellion of Cayaraja
Trinisancangkara (1193): Jayakatwang becomes the King of Kediri
Nagasyabhawa (1197): Pamalayu expedition by Kertanegara
Yamasunyasurrya (1202): the rebellion of Mahisa Rangkah
Anggawiyatarka (1206): the invasion of Bali
Abdhijanarryarna (1214): the death of Kertanegara
Masaruparawi (1216): the Coronation of Kertarajasa as Majapahit King
Mukgigunapaksarupa (1238): the death of Kertarajasa
Windusarasurya (1250): the death of Jayanagara
Indubanadwirupa (1251): the coronation of Tribuwanatunggadewi
Tryanginina (1253): Gajah Mada become Mahapatih (Vice-King) of Majapahit
Agniswari (1253): the attack on Sadeng and Keta
Analasararka (1253): the theft of Arca Aksobaya

Source:
Slamet Muljana. 2006. Tafsir Sejarah Negarakertagama. PT LKiS Pelangi.

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