At the beginning of the second half of the nineteenth century, European nations were becoming increasingly reliant upon the rising industrial output of the factories and hence upon the workers employed by these factories. This dependency embolded the reform movements, which began to gather steam and achieve results. England led the way by expanding the enfranchisement of its citizens, and Germany, under Bismarck, catered the demands of the reformers and enacted legislation that allayed many of the workers' worst grievances. In France a Republican Constitution was established in 1875. Russia under Alexander II emancipated the serfs in 1861. That same year, the Civil War broke out in the United States, and Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation to free the slaves was issued the following year. The struggle for women's rights often converged with other reform movements. For example, after the Civil War, William Lloyd Garrison a leading abolitionist in the United States, focused his attention on the women's suffrage movement. Garrison became involved in an upsurge of reform movements common throughout Europe. A Patriot's History of the United States: From Columbus's Great Discovery to the War on Terror
Napoleon defeats at Battle of Marengo.
First performance (April) of Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony no.1 in C Major (in Vienna).
Act of Union provides one Parliament for Britain and Ireland.
Metric system made compulsory by French National Convention.
John Marshall named chief justice of the United States.
US Military Academy at West Point founded.
Louisiana Purchase negotiated.
Robert Fulton develops first steam-powered ship.
Napoleon proclaimed emperor (May 18).
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark begin their expedition (May 14).
Holy Roman Empire ends, July 12, with Confederation of the Rhine.
Napoleon initiates the Continental System.
Lewis and Clark return.
Noah Webster publishes his first dictionary.
William Wordsworth publishes Poems in Two Volumes.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe publishes the first part of Faust.
Klemens von Metternich becomes Austrian minister of state.
Arthur Wellesley defeats Spanish king Joseph Bonaparte (Napoleon's brother) and becomes duke of Wellington.
First Oktoberfest occurs in celebration of marriage between Bavaria's Crown Prince Ludwig and Princess Therese of Saxe-Hildeburghausen.
Battle of Tippecanoe (November 7) takes place.
Jane Austen anonymously publishes Sense and Sensibility.
Napoleon begins ill-fated invasion of Russia.
United States and Britain go to war over impressment.
Lord Byron travels to Greece and publishes Cantos on his adventures.
Napoleon defeteated at Battle of Leipzig.
Giachhino Rossini's opera L'Italiana in Algeri performed in Venice.
Napoleon abdicates (April 11).
Congress of Vienna convenes (September).
Francis Scott Key writes "Star Spangled Banner" during a battle with the British in Baltimore harbor.
Sir Walter Scott publishes Wavery.
Battle of New Orleans (January 8) takes place.
Battle of Waterloo (June 18) fought.
Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm's Fairy Tale published.
G.W.F. Hegel's Science of Logic published.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge publishes Kublai Khan.
John Keats publishes his first sonnet.
Rossini's Barber of Seville performed in Rome.
Milos Obrenovic founds dynasty that will rule Serbia until 1842.
David Ricardo publishes Principles of Political Economy.
Scott publishes Rob Roy.
Mary Shelley publishes Frankenstein.
Simon Bolivar gains independence of Colombia from Spain.
Arthur Schopenhauer writes World as Will and Representation.
Washington Irving publishes The Sketch Book (contains "Legend of Sleepy Hollow").
Keats writes Ode on a Grecian Urn.
Greek war of independence against Ottoman Turks begins (ends 1831).
Michael Faraday develops electric motor.
James Fenimore Cooper publishes The Spy.
Franz Liszt makes his debut in Vienna, age 11.
James Monroe issues the Monroe Doctrine.
First performance of Franz Peter Schubert's ballet Musik aus Rosamunde.
Louis XVIII of France dies, succeeded by Charles X (rules until 1830).
Beethoven's Symphony no.9 performed in Vienna.
Decembrist uprising in Saint Petersburg put down by Nicholas I.
New York Stock Exchange opens.
First steam locomotive passenger service in England opens.
Heinrich Heine publishes Pictures of Travel.
Felix Mendelsohn's Midsummer Night's Dream performed.
Russia declares ware on Ottoman Empire.
Andrew Jackson elected president of the United States.
Greece gains independence.
Edgar Allan Poe publishes first writings (poems).
July Revolution in Paris leads to overthrow of Charles X.
Mormon Church founded.
William Lloyd Garrison begins publishing The Liberator.
Charles Darwin begins voyage aboard HMS Beagle.
The (first) Reform Act in England doubles the number of eligible voters.
Samuel Morse develops the telegraph.
George Sand publishes Indiana.
Charles Babbage develops "analytical engine," the first calculator.
First Carlist War in Spain begins.
Giuseppe Mazzini begins Young Europe Movement.
Alexis de Tocqueville publishes Democracy in America.
Nikolay Gogol publishes a collection of short stories (Mirgirod).
Hans Christian Andersen publishes his Fairy Tale
P.T. Barnum begins his career as a showman.
The Alamo falls to Mexican general Santa Anna.
Ralph Waldo Emerson publishes "Nature".
Charles Dickes publishes his first work, Sketches by Boz.
Queen Victoria acceedes to throne upon death of William IV.
Pushkin mortally wounded in a duel.
Underground Railway to help escaped slaves established.
Trail of Tears, or Indian removal, begins.
Hector Berlioz's opera Benvenuto Cellini performed.
Opium war begins.
Stendhal publishes The Charterhouse of Parma.
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow publishes Voices of the Night.
John J. Audubon completes his bird paintings.
Friedrich Wilhelm IV succeeds Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia.
Pierre-Joseph Proudhon publishes "What is Property?"
World's first postage stamp (the "penny black") put into use.
Richard Henry Dana, Jr., published Two Years Befor the Mast.
Mutineers aboard Amistad found not guilty.
Peel ministry introduces British income tax.
John Deere sells improved version of steel plow.
Alfred Tennyson publishes two-volume work, Poems.
Giuseppe Verdi's opera Nabucco debuts in Milan.
Feargus O'Connor established Chartist Cooperative to free people from factory.
Elias Howe invents the sewing machine.
Soren Kierkegaard publishes Either-Or.
Richard Wagner's first opera, The Flying Dutchman, premiers in Dresden.
Republic of Texas annexed.
Potato failure and famine afflict Ireland.
Friedrich Engels publishes The Condition of the Working Class in England.
Scientific American begins publication.
Alexandre Dumas publishes The Count of Monte Cristo.
Mexican War begins.
Smithsonian Institution founded.
Herman Melville publishes Typee, his first novel.
Frederick Douglass begins publication of his abolitionist newspaper.
Karl Marx publishes Communist Manifesto.
Emily Bronte writes Wuthering Heights.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends Mexican War.
Worker's revolutions take place in Vienna, Prague, and Berlin.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton leads first Women's Rights Convention.
Gold discovered in California at Sutter's Mill.
Cyrus McCormick begins to sell his reaper.
John Stuart Mill publishes Principles of Political Economy.
Austrian Emperor Franz Josef suppreses revolutions in Buda and Pest.
Louis Kossuth declares Hungarian independence.
Henry David Thoreau publishes "Resistance to Civil Government" (later written as "On Civil Disobedience").
California admitted to the Union.
Nathaniel Hawthorne publishes The Scarlet Letter.