16 July 2009

Konsep Paradigma Ekonomi

Paradigma sebagai contoh yang terpadu merupakan unsur inti dari apa yang menurut pembahasan di sini disebut sebagai aspek yang paling lengkap dan paling sulit dipahami. (Kuhn, 1970a, h 187).
Kuhn mendefinisikan paradigma, yang ia yakini sebagai konsep filosofi sentral dari kajiannya (1970an h. 234) sebagai berikut: "secara universal paradigma merupakan pencapaian ilmiah yang dapat dipahami yang dapat membantu kalangan praktisi untuk memecahkan permasalahan yang dihadapi (1970a, h.iii). Sementara itu Masterman berpendapat bahwa paradigma adalah sebuah 'gambaran' konkret dari sesuatu, katakanlah A, yang digunakan secara analogis untuk menjelaskan sesuatu yang lain yang juga konkret, katakanlah B. Paradigma adalah sebuah konstruksi yang dapat diketahui; sebuah artifak" (1970,h.78). Berdasarkan pengertian ini, kalangan ilmuwan biasanya menghasilkan kesepakatan mengenai prinsip dan aturan bersama didalam mendefinisikan suatu teori, aplikasi, dan instrumentasi saat mereka berusaha membentuk contoh klasik atau gambaran standar tertentu yang menjadi pedoman bagi perilaku ilmiah: agar dapat diuraikan melalui pendekatan lain, maka kalangan ilmuwan tersebut harus diberi petunjuk mengenai cara kerja yang harus mereka lakukan. Karakteristik strategis dari paradigma sebagai sebuah contoh adalah kekonretannya (sifat konkret dari paradigma), yang mampu menjawab teka-teki yang dihadapi oleh para ilmuwan.
Seperti sebagian besar bentuk teka-teki yang baik, teka-teki dalam kegiatan menabung memiliki potongan-potongan yang banyak ...(Kontlikoff, 1988:55).
Keynes, dalam bukunya The General Theory mengeluarkan hipotesis hubungan antara disposable income dan konsumsi dimana konsumsi menjadi fungsi dari disposable income. Data crosss-section menunjukkan bahwa rasio tabungan sangat berbeda diantara kelompok pendapatan. Untuk melengkapi fakta yang terjadi setelah terjadinya perang, konsumsi terbukti sangat kuat, terlepas dari terjadinya penurunan disposable income. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa fungsi konsumsi berperilaku secara berbeda diluar siklus yang dijalaninya selama periode waktu yang lama. Usaha untuk mencocokkan teori dengan fenomena sekuler, cross-sectional, dan siklik ini, dan untuk menghubungkannya satu sama lain dalam cara yang konsisten, menjadi perhatian utama bagi pihak-pihak yang berusaha untuk mengembangkan teori makroekonomi. Sumber: Concepts of Economic Paradigm Download artikel selengkapnya

Neo Liberal Manifesto

Author: Charles Peters One problem of the new liberal is the way he is misunderstood by the old liberals. Most of them have read what has been written here as advocating a return to the days of the Vietnam draft, robber barons, Tammany patronage, and coerced prayer. At the same time the new liberal must be willing to risk misunderstanding. Risk is indeed the essence of the movement - the risk of the person who has the different idea in industry or in government. That is why we place such a high value on the entrepreneur. The economic, social and political revitalization we seek is to come only through a dramatic increase in the number of people willing to put themselves on the line to take a chance at losing all, at looking ridiculous.
Risk taking is important not only in career terms but in the way one looks at the world and the possibilities it presents. If you see only a narrow range of choices, if you are a prisoner of conventional, respectable thinking, you are unlikely to find new ways out of our problems. Neoliberals look at the possibilities with a wide-angle lens. For example, some of us, who are on the whole internationalists and free traders, are willing to consider such bizarre ideas as getting out of NATO, forgetting about the Persian Gulf, and embargoing Japanese cars.
One problem we're trying to address with such suggestion is that American industry's ability to compete has been seriously impaired with the amount of money we have spent in the common defense compared to our competition and that we must find some dramatic way to redress the balance. Download complete text

Education in Kenya

Sources: Africa Speaks, Wikipedia
In 1963 the Kenyan government promised free primary education to its people. This promise did not take effect until 2003. Citizens are expected to contribute to the education fund by paying fees, taxes, and labour services. After contributing, most parents did not have the money to pay for their children’s education and were subsequently locked out of the school system.
The system of education was introduced by British colonists. After Kenya's independence on December 12, 1963, the Ominde Commission was set up to make changes in the educational system. This commission focused on national identity and unity. Changes in the subject content of history and geography were made to reflect the building of a national identity. Between 1964 to 1985, the 7-4-2-3-system was adopted – seven years of primary, four years of lower secondary, two years of upper secondary, and three years of university. All schools had a common curriculum.
In 1981, the Presidential Working Party on the Second University was commissioned to look at both the possibilities of setting up a second university in Kenya. They were also responsible for reforming the entire education system. The committee recommended that the 7-4-2-3 system be changed to an 8-4-4 system (eight years in primary, four years in secondary, and four years in university education). Table 1.2 shows the structure of the 8-4-4 system. The 8-4-4 system was launched in January 1985 and emphasized vocational subjects. It was assumed that this new structure would enable school dropouts at all levels to be either self-employed or to get employment in the non-formal sector. In January 2003, the Government of Kenya announced the introduction of free primary education. As a result, primary school enrolment increased by about 70%. However, secondary and tertiary education enrollment has not increased proportionally due to the fact that payment is still required for attendance. In class eight of primary school the Kenya Certificate of Primary Examination (K.C.P.E.) is written. The result of this examination is needed for placement at secondary school. In form four of secondary schools the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Examination (K.C.S.E.) is written. Students sit examinations in eight subjects. Private schools in Kenya cater generally for the middle and upper classes as well as the ex-patriate community. Many are largely affiliated with distinct religious organisations such as Oshwal Academy which is owned and managed by the OERB of the Oshwal community (Kenyan-Indians following Jainism) as well as various Catholic (Saint Mary's School Nairobi), Missionary (Rift Valley Academy) and Islamic (Aga Khan Academy) affiliated schools. These organisations are generally in charge of funding for the schools, and do not usually bias the curriculum or activities to reflect these ties, especially for non-adherent students. Most private day schools in Kenya are located within Nairobi and Mombasa, with boarding schools generally located in the countryside or the outskirts of town. This is a clear parallel to the British tradition of upper and upper-middle class families sending their children to expensive boarding schools that offer extensive grounds and facilities. The schools themselves are similar in a sense to the tradition of British public schools, with a lot of private schools in Nairobi either being based on the public school form, e.g. Brookhouse School, or having once been British public schools under colonial rule, e.g. Saint Mary's School, Nairobi and Kenton College.
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