Semiotic Tradition The use of semiotics is to help understand what is intended by a message and how the message is concstructed structurally. Theory of semiotics also helps understand the meaning behind the message. Theory of symbols: Susanne Langer The very important theory of symbols is that of being introduced by Susanne Langer. Her work in "Philosophy in a New Key" has become center of interest in symbolism discourse. Langer argues that the life of all animals is dominated by feeling, but the feeling possessed by human can be expressed by symbols, conceptions, and languages. Animals repond with signs, but human can do more than that. Human does not only respond with the sign, but also creates the symbols. Cloud can be a sign of rain, as laugh to happiness, or red light on the road to stopping cars. These relationships are simple and those being said as a signification. The presence of signification makes an individual to, for example, stop the car when the red traffic light turns on. Conversely, symbols operate in a more complect line. They allow an individual to think about something separated from the presence of something at particular moment. In other words, symbols are "instruments of thought". They are core or central of the human's life. Human has ability to use these symbols and to have basic needs of symbolization. According to the above discussion, it can be concluded that meaning consists of logical and psychological aspects. The logical aspect is the relationship between symbols and reference, or as Langer says denotation; wheras the psychological aspect is the relationship between symbols and the human, or as Langer says conotation. Humans use one-word symbol, but they more often use composition of words. The real signification of he language lies in discourse, in which we compose words into sentence, and sentence into paragraph. Discourse expresses a proposition, which contains complex symbols of illustration of particular things. The potential of composition and organization within language has made the language rich of instruments the humans can never be able to replace. Dealing with the function of the symbol, according to Langer, concept is a meaning that is divided between communicators. In other words, it is a denotation of the symbol. Whereas, personal image means a personalized conception, a conotation of the symbol. Langer explains that human has tendency to abstract and such nature is gifted. In Van Gogh's painting, "Still Life with Open Bible", one may see a very big Bible that lies side by side a candle. Nearby the Bible there is a compy of novle. If we take a look at the painting in more detailed manner, there comes the title of the novel, "The Joy of Living" written by Emile Zola. From this perception, the Van Gogh's painting shows the Bible, the candle, and the book. However, Van Gogh had rater address his painting more personally: symbolizing the life and the death of his biological father who was a minister. The classical fundamental of language Studies of language have been eventually affected by semiotics, vise versa. Founder of modern structural lingustics, Ferdinand de Saussure, is the role player who contributes valuable points to the structural traditions in communication science. He explains that signs, including the language, are temporary. Signs are conventions that are affected by rules. Saussure also sees laguage as a structured system that shows reality. He believes that all linguistic researchers must pay attention to the forms of language, such as utterance, sound, word, and grammar. While language structure is temporary, the language use is eternal. Saussure shows the significant difference between formal language, that he suggests as "langue", and the actual use of the langauge in communication, that he calls "parole". Langue is a formal system that can be analyzed separately from its use in daily life. Parole is the actual use of the language to reach particular purpose. Communicators truly create the forms of discourse overtime when they communicate. In other words, we do not merely find the forms of new language structure to determine the right use of, for example, present and future tenses; but also do it unconsciously through interaction, by using forms of language in quite creative and dynamic manners. Here is the difference between language and discourse. From the above argument, Saussure concludes that lingustics is not a study of parole, but langue. He suggests that language can be analyzed in some stages, which has rigid relation to sounds, words, and phrases. The lingustics has been beyond the structural approach and included different approaches namely generative grammar. Meanwhile, Noah Chomsky et al., define this generative grammar as part of socio-psychological tradition rather than semiotic analysis. Semiotic tradition Studies that discuss the relationship of the language to the power show something interesting about critical traditions. The studies about the use of the langauge by several cultural groups possibly show a socioculture, wheras the studies of the way we interpret the text langauge can explain the phenomenology. However, the studies of the language structure are semiotic because they treat signs as mediators the world of experience to the world of comprehension. Language is a place where we find traditions that are capable of combine and being present mutually. This is what suggested by many critical theories, sociocultural theories, and phenomenology, which base on the semiotics. Model of message development Planning theory. Charles Berger defines plan as "a hierarchical cognitive representation of series of action directed to the target." In other words, plan shows mental images of efforts of an individual in order to reach his desired target. Based on this definition, the planning can be defined as a process to think about action plans. Perencanaan dan pencapaian sasaran sama-sama terikat erat secara emosional dengan emosi seseorang. Jika sasaran kita terhambat, maka kita cenderung bereaksi secara kegatif. Sebaliknya, jika rencana kita berjalan mulus maka kita sering merasa tersanjung. Perasaan negatif yang kita alami pada saat mengalami kegagalan di dalam mencapai sasaran bergantung pada seberapa penting sasaran tersebut. Logika Pembuatan Pesan. Barbara O'Keefe memiliki latar belakang sebagai penganut konstruktivisme. Akan tetapi dalam prakteknya ia mengembangkan oreintasi teoretikal untuk membahas mengenai model pembuatan pesan. O'Keefe memperkenalkan tiga logika pembuatan pesan dari logika yang paling tidak terpusat pada persona hingga yang paling terpusat pada pesona. Logia ekspresif memandang komunikasi sebagai sebuah bentuk pengungkapan diri untuk mengkomunikasikan perasaan dan pikiran. Logika konvensional memandang komunikasi sebagai sebuah permainan yang dimainkan dengan aturan-aturan sebagai berikut. Di sini komunikasi menjadi sarana pengungkapan diri yang berlaku sesuai dengan aturan serta norma yang disepakati termasuk hak dan tanggung jawab dari masing-masing manusia yang terlibat didalamnya. Logika retorik memandang komunikasi sebagai sebuah cara untuk merubah aturan melalui negosiasi.