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25 July 2009

Natural architecture: green visions for inner-city spaces

Buildings with grass growing on the rooftops, little brooks running through pedestrian zones, homes built from tree roots - it may sound utopian, but a Belgian architect says it's all possible.
"I'm an architect and a utopist," said Luc Schuiten. The architect lives and works in Brussels and believes that the city, like so many others, has no future if something does not change soon.

"You cannot feel good in light of all the environmental pollution and the grim perspectives for the future," said the 65-year-old visionary. "So, I try to envision alternatives."

For the first time ever, drafts and designs by the relatively unknown architect are on display in a large show in Brussels.

The entrance to the "Vegetal City" installation is composed of an archway made of branches adorned with little yellow lights that blink to the sound of a heartbeat pulsing from speakers.

Beyond the entrance, visitors will find architectural models and drawings of balanced, colorful, almost fairy tale-like cities and people who have managed to live in harmony with nature. Round, flowing shapes that weave into one another are Schuiten's trademark.

Arriving at his home in Brussels' suburbs, Schuiten parks his vehicle in the garage. The elegant facade of the old townhouse masks a wood-dominated interior designed in Schuiten's flowing style. A window stretching over two stories looks out into the lush garden.

Schuiten sits down to work in his studio attached to the townhouse. Among all the carefully marked drawers and binders are his sketchbooks that stand at the ready beside hundreds of other books lined up on shelves.

Ideas spring to mind quickly, he said. In a matter of seconds, one tiny sketch can lead to a vast vision for an entire city.

Author: Nina Plonka (als)

Editor: Kate Bowen

Deutche Welle

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23 July 2009

Comodo park now ranks 8th in campaign

The Komodo National Park now ranks eighth in Group E (for forests, national parks and nature reserves), after more than 3,000 Indonesians voted online Sunday for the park to become one of the New Seven Wonders of Nature (N7WN).

During a road show in Bandung, West Java, to campaign for the park, at least 3,076 people in the city voted online for it to be recognized as one of the new seven natural wonders of the world.

These votes increased the ranking of the park, located in East Nusa Tenggara (NTT), to eighth on the list of 56 nominees across the globe, the culture and tourism ministry's director general of marketing, Sapta Nirwandar said in Bandung.

The support from Bandung, he hoped, would increase after the road show on Monday, when the status of the Komodo park's ranking will be made known to the public.

Sapta said by July 7 this year, the park must be second on the list in Group E in order to contest the final round of the competition, sponsored by the New Open World Foundation.

"If it wins as one of the New Seven Wonders of Nature, it will be a good boost for Indonesia's image as an international tourist destination," he told a press conference during the road show.

The Sunday event featured a music concert in the Cihampeulas area to lure young voters. The campaign started on June 15, 2009, with the ministry opening the online voting booth and offering souvenirs and door prizes for visitors.

Sapta said the government is targeting an additional 20,000 votes for the Komodo park to add to the 10,000 votes collected since January this year.

From Bandung, the ministry will take the road show to Yogyakarta, Surabaya, Makassar and Medan.

Source: The Jakarta Post

Tanggapan dari Tiyo Widodo:

Pulau Komodo sedang diorbitkan menjadi salah satu dari tujuh keajaiban dunia. Entah mengapa saya merasa tidak sepakat, sehingga cenderung menolak.
Adalah sebuah kebanggaan menyaksikan kekayaan bangsa menjadi monumen dunia. Namun, setelah mempertimbangkan, eksposisi Pulau Komodo kepada dunia akan membuahkan dampak negatif jangka panjang.
Di antara keuntungan yang datang dalam bentuk imateri (kebanggaan) dan materi (devisa), seringkali muncul praktek komersialisasi. Pelaku yang terlibat dalam kegiatan lokasi Pulau Komodo, yang notabene pasti menjadi objek wisata, tidak tertib dalam menjalankan tugasnya. Pasti akan terjadi pula pencemaran lingkungan sekitar. Pokoknya benahi dulu lah tiap pendukung pengembangan Pulau Komodo. Pungutan liar juga saya khawatirkan akan terjadi dengan dalih perawatan lokasi, harga makanan yang mahal jauh di atas harga normal, dan sejenisnya.
Okey deh, mungkin saya telah mengambil keputusan yang keliru. Tetapi menurut saya lebih baik kita biarkan apa adanya Pulau Komodo. Biarkan hewan langka itu hidup tenang. Hendaknya jangan kita "jual" mereka demi keuntungan kita. Saya yakin pasti itu tujuannya. Sangat sulit untuk memisahkan misi pencantuman Pulau Komodo ke dalam "the seven wonders" dari orientasi uang. Baik, kita masyarakat biasa pasti bangga. Nah, para pengelola itu lah yang saya khawatirkan dan sangsikan ketulusannya. Apakah benar-benar ingin mengharumkan nama bangsa? Atau justru sebaliknya, melakukan pembusukan baik langsung maupun tidak langsung, baik sengaja maupun tanpa sengaja.
Bottom line, kita tetap masih dapat mempopulerkan Pulau Komodo dengan menjaga "keperawanannya" dari eksploitasi.
Protect our natural resources!

20 July 2009

Electronic bullying of students has real effect

Source: Georgann Yara

The tears shed by a schoolmate reminded McClintock High School sophomore Austin Arredondo that words can pack a punch, even when wielded by a faceless author whose pen is a keyboard and delivery service is the Internet.

Earlier this year, Austin, 15, said he heard classmates whispering about an unfounded rumor placed on a social media Web site. The rumor had made the rounds by the next day, when he saw the female subject of the gossip crying at school. Internet technology and an increasingly computer-savvy generation has fueled the popularity of sites such as MySpace and Facebook, not to mention increased use of older, more-traditional communication methods like text messaging and e-mail. Austin said he has never seen or been the target of online threats, but realizes how the tool could make intimidating others easier. "It's always those people who say stuff about other people behind their backs. I think it's easier. You don't have to look at them in the face. There is no immediate threat of getting punched or anything like there is if you were actually there," Austin said. And when it comes to bullying, computers and cellphones have become the near-perfect hiding place for teens who may not otherwise take the aggressive stance. While these threats tend to happen off school property and outside of the school day, the repercussions can affect classroom performance. This is when Southeast Valley educators like Samantha Heinrich. manager of prevention services for the Kyrene School District, step in. Heinrich said a drop in grades, reclusive behavior or any other noticeable changes will cause teachers to ask questions. "The school has no jurisdiction, but inevitably it does creep into the school day. There is no consequence for cyber-bullying, but if it's going on at school then school will intervene," she said. Heinrich said she has intervened in serious bullying cases involving elementary-school-aged children, many of which occur via text message. Some threats can be overtly aggressive and consist of written threats or even negative photos associated with the bully's target. Others are subtler, questioning why someone looks at another in a certain way or commands them to stop staring at them during lunch. Heinrich said reports of cyber threats have been on a consistent rise within the last two years, with perpetrators getting younger. The district has put on workshops that help parents monitor their child's Internet and phone usage and teach them the skills to detect whether their child is bullying or being bullied. Another trend shows that some children who were bullied or too shy to fight back find technology somewhat of a refuge, a place where they can inflict the emotional pain they have endured. Horizon Honors High School principal Nancy Emmons said the school offers students an advisory program on Internet safety that includes how hurtful messages can have a lasting impact and haunt both writer and recipient long after the send button is pressed. Marcos de Niza High School principal Frank Mirizio said it is common for parents and students to bring a copy of a threatening MySpace page or show a text message. Mirizio said administrators conduct thorough investigations into each claim. About 99 percent of treats are "typical" and cause for little concern beyond speaking with the parties involved. "It's typical name-calling because you stole my boyfriend type of issue. We investigate it like a serious problem, but we end up getting to the bottom of it and that's the kind of thing it usually is," Mirizio said. In the rare event a viable physical threat is made, the issue is brought to the school resource officer, who starts the legal investigation. Tempe police Juvenile Detective Brandon Banks said he had to get involved in a threat complaint last semester as the SRO at McClintock. Although the most drastic may involve threat to use a lethal weapon, Banks said a strong majority of youths will never go to that level or take steps to end a life. He said students come to his office in tears because someone posted a negative online blog about them. "Few want to get into a physical confrontation, that's why they're using those Web sites," Banks said. "Juveniles use it to bully where they may not otherwise have bullied. It certainly provides an outlet for their frustrations."

Self-Esteem Comes First

Source: specialed.about.com
We've long known that when students feel good about themselves, they are much more likely to become better achievers in the classroom. Fostering can do attitudes and building students' confidence by setting them up for success and providing positive feedback along with frequent praise are essential tools for both teachers and parents. Think about yourself, the more confident you feel, the better you feel about the task at hand and your ability to do it. When a child is feeling good about themselves, it's much easier to motivate them to become academically proficient.
What's the next step? First of all, in order to help improve self-esteem, we have to be careful in the way we provide feedback. Dweck (1999) argues that having a particular goal orientation, (learning goal or performance goal) to base feedback on as opposed to person-orientated praise will be more effective. In other words, avoid using statements like: 'I'm proud of you'; Wow, you worked hard. Instead, focus the praise on the task or process. Praise the student's specific effort and strategy. Dweck (1999) For instance, 'I notice you selected the cube-a-links to solve that problem, that's a great strategy.' I noticed that you didn't make any computational errors this time!' When using this type of feedback, you've addressed both self-esteem and you've supported the child's motivational level for academic goals.
Self-esteem is important in and out of the classroom. Teachers and parents can support self-esteem by remembering some of the following:
* Always accentuate the positive. Do you ever notice those suffering from a low self- esteem tend to focus on the negative? You'll hear statements like: 'Oh, I was never any good at that. 'I can't keep friends'. This actually indicates that this person needs to like themselves more!
* Give children the opportunity to tell you 10 things they like about themselves. Prompt them to state things they can do well, things they feel good about. You will be surprised at how many children suffering with low self-esteem have difficulty with this task - you'll need to provide prompts. (This is also a great beginning of the year activity)
* Avoid criticism. Those suffering with low self-esteem struggle the most when given criticism. Be sensitive to this. * Always remember that self-esteem is about how much children feel valued, appreciated, accepted, loved and having a good sense of self worth. Having a good self-image. * Understand that as parents and teachers, you play one of the biggest roles in how good or bad a child can feel about themselves - again, avoid criticism. Influence from a parent or teacher can make and break a child's sense of self-esteem. Don't abuse it. * Expectations must always be realistic. This goes along with setting children up for success. Differentiated instruction is key and goes long way to ensure that teachers know their students and esnures the types of tasks/expectations match the child's strengths and ability levels. * See the learning in errors or mistakes. Turn mistakes inside out and focus on what was or will be learned from the mistake. This helps a child focus on the positive, not the negative. Remind students that everyone makes mistakes but it's how those mistakes are handled that makes the difference. We need to see them as learning opportunities. Powerful learning can often be the result of a mistake made. Self-esteem is an important component to almost everything children do. Not only will it help with academic performance, it supports social skills and makes it easier for children to have and keep friends. Relationships with peers and teachers are usually more positive with a healthy dose of self-esteem. Children are also better equipped to cope with mistakes, disappointment and failure, they are more likely to stick with challenging tasks and complete learning activities. Self-esteem is needed life-long and we need to remember the important role we play to enhance or damage a child's self-esteem. Reference: Dweck, C. S. (1999) Self Theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality, and Development. Hove: Psychology Press, Taylor and Francis Group.

Sistem Pendidikan di Azerbaijan

Sistem pendidikan ini ditetapkan oleh Student Admission State Committee (SASC), bekerjasama dengan Menteri Pendidikan, dan Kabinet Menteri. Adapun pembagian pendidikan yang berlaku di Azerbaijan adalah sebagai berikut: taman kanak-kanak (kindergarten) untuk anak usia 3-6 tahun, kemudian setelah itu mereka masuk ke dalam tiga tingkatan pendidikan umum (general pendidikan) yang terdiri atas primary education (grades 1-4), basic (atau junior secondary) education (grades 5-9), dan (senior) secondary education (grades 10-11). Siswa yang lulus dari pendidikan umum ini dapat mendaftarkan ke pendidikan tingkat lanjut (academic or vocational postsecondary education). Terdapat tiga jenis pendidikan kejuruan (vocational), yaitu: (i) technical occupational schools, dengan lama pendidikan 1-2 tahun; (ii) technical occupational lyceums, dengan lama pendidikan 3-4 tahun; dan (iii) technical secondary schools and colleges dengan lama pendidikan 3,5-4 tahun. Acedemic postsecondary education menawarkan gelar sarjana dan master. Pendidikan sarja dan master diselenggarakan oleh lembaga pendidikan pemerintah maupun swasta. Anggaran Pendidikan. Besar dan sifat anggaran pendidikan menjadi hal yang sangat krusial bagi pendidikan. Pada tahun 2002 anggaran pendidikan negara Azerbaijan mencapai 2,5% dari estimasi GDP, dibandingkan dengan rata-rata 4,2% periode 1996-2000. Sebanyak 80% anggaran dibelanjakan untuk memberi gaji pengajar. Adapun pembangunan gedung, pembangunan sekolah juruan dan teknik baru, perlengkapan, dan fasilitas pelatihan bagi guru memerlukan 3,3% dari total anggaran pendidikan pada tahun 2000 dan berkurang menjadi 1,2% pada tahun 2001. Kekhususan sistem penganggaran yang dapat ditemukan di negara Azerbaijan ialah hanya terdapat 12% dari anggaran pendidikan yang benar-benar dikendalikan dan di bawah wewenang Kementrian Pendidikan. Kementrian Pendidikan menyusun anggaran tahunan dan hasilnya diperiksa oleh Kementrian Keuangan dan Kabinet. Penetapan anggaran harus melalui persetujuan parlemen. Dana pendidikan diserahkan langsung kepada departemen-departemen keuangan tingkat distrik. Aliran Informasi. Data pendidikan tingkat sekolah dikumpulkan oleh departemen-departemen pendidikan tingkat daerah (lokal) dan distrik dan oleh kementrian serta komite lainnya yang terlibat di dalam sektor pendidikan. Terkait dengan adanya IDP (internally displaced persons) dan pengungsi, data sekolah, siswa, dan pengajar diberikan oleh State Committee on Refugees dan IDP Affairs. Data ini diberitahukan kepada Kementrian Pendidikan untuk diperiksa dan dikaji. Setelah dikaji, data kemudian disebarkan ke unit-unit pemerintah. Kementrian Pendidikan menghadapi kesulitan di dalam memperoleh data terkini tentang status dan perubahan sekolah dan program pendidikan dari otoritas eksekutif regional karena terbatasnya keterampilan manajemen dan tidak adanya sistem informasi manajemen jaringan.

Bomb Terrors in Indonesia

Once again Indonesia experiences a bitter line of the nation's history as terrors showed down in the heart of the country's capital. The bomb, killing nine people and wounded 42 others on Friday, July 17, was the 12th of the overall since the first blast in the Philippine ambassador (where among dozens wounded, and two people killed, in a blast outside his Jakarta home). Many of the attacks were related to Islamic movements, something that truly hurt the Muslims of the country.
However, I bet it no more than a conspiracy on behalf of innocent Islam world. Even, no religion seems to allow such violence. Terrorists and terrorism know no religion !!
Below are lists of bomb terrors that occurred in Indonesia: Sept 13, 2000 - Blast at stock exchange in Jakarta kills 15 and wounds dozens. Dec 24, 2000 - Series of Christmas Eve blasts at Jakarta churches and elsewhere in the country kill 17 people and wound about 100. At first thought by some to have political motivations, the blasts are later tied to Jemaah Islamiah. Oct 12, 2002 - Blasts on the tourist island of Bali kill 202 people, many of them foreign tourists, including 88 Australians. Three of the "Bali bombers" from the al Qaeda-linked group Jemaah Islamiah are executed by firing squad in November 2008. Dec 5, 2002 - Blast in a McDonald's restaurant in eastern town of Makassar kills three. Aug 5, 2003 - Bomb outside JW Marriott Hotel in Jakarta kills 12 people, including a Dutchman, and wounds 150. Jemaah Islamiah is blamed. Jan 10, 2004 - Four people are killed by a bomb in a karaoke cafe in Palopo on Sulawesi island. Sept 9, 2004 - A powerful bomb explodes near the Australian embassy in central Jakarta killing 10 Indonesians and wounding more than 100. Jemaah Islamiah is blamed for the attack. Nov 13, 2004 - An explosion near a police station on the eastern island of Sulawesi kills five people and wounds four. May 28, 2005 - Two bombs rip through a busy market in a Christian town in eastern Indonesia, killing 22 people. Oct 2, 2005 - Suicide bombers linked to Jemaah Islamiah set off three bombs on Bali that kill 20 people, including some foreign tourists. More than 100 people were wounded. July 17, 2009 - Bomb blasts at the JW Marriott and the Ritz-Carlton hotels in Jakarta's business district kill nine people and wound 42. Source: Reuters

18 July 2009

Sejarah Ilmu Kimia

Judul asli: History of Chemistry Sejarah ilmu kimia, atau sejarah penelitian tentang komposisi, susunan, dan sifat darn substansi materi, interaksi antarsubstansi, dan dampak dari substansi penambahan atau penghilangan energi pada berbagai bentuk. Telah banyak observasi mengenai perubahan kimia dan penyebab dari perubahan tersebut. Proses-proses kimia yang pertama kali dikenal dilakukan oleh para seniman di Mesopotamia, Mesir, dan Cina. Pada zaman logam manusia membuat peralatan yang berasal dari emas atau tembaga, yang kadang-kadang terjadi secara alami dengan sifat yang murni, namun setelah itu manusia segera mempelajari bagaimana mencium oksida dan sulfida metalik dengan memanaskan materi-materi tersebut dengan kayu atau batubara agar menghasilkan logam yang diinginkan. Kemajuan pemanfaatan tembaga, perunggu, dan besi melahirkan nama-nama logam yang berguna untuk kepentingan arkeologi. Teknologi kimia kuno juga lahir dari budaya ini misalnya dalam bentuk perawatan pakaian dan pembuatan gelas dari kaca. Para alkemi bangsa Arab juga berhubungan dengan Cina di belahan bumi Timur, dengan menerima konsep-konsep mengenai emas sebagai obat, sama halnya ide orang Yunani bahwa emas adalah logam yang sempurna. Agen spesifik, yang dikenal dengan sebutan batu filsuf (philosopher's stone), diyakini dapat memicu dilakukannya imitas, dan menjadi obyek penelitian para alkemi. Alkemi saat itu menambahkan insentif untuk mempelajari proses-proses kimia, yang dari hal tersebut mereka dapat mencapai kemakmuran dan kesehatan. Penelitian tentang cabang ilmu kimia mengalami kemajuan yang tidak terlalu pesat. Pada masa ini ditemukan alkali (lihat Logam Alkali) dan garam amoniak (lihat Ammonia) dan proses distilasi. Kebangkitan intelektual terjadi di Eropa Barat pada abad ke-11. penyebabnya sebagian ialah pertukaran budaya antara ilmuwan Arab dan Barat di Sisilia dan Spanyol. Sekolah-sekolah penerjemah didirikan, dan terjemahan mereka mengalihbahasakan naskah berbahasa Arab ke bahasa yang digunakan bangsa Eropa. Pengetahuan Yunani yang digunakan dalam bahasa Siriac dan Arab menjadi dapat mereka pahami, yang berbahasa Latin dan bangsa lain di belahan Eropa. Banyak manuskrip mengenai alkemi yang dipelajari dengan giat pada masa itu. Download artikel selengkapnya

Perkembangan Politik Negara Cina

Judul Asli: Politics in China Penulis: Melanie Manion Pembuat kebijakan di Cina telah sangat didominasi oleh proyek pembangunan rakyat berdasarkan ideologi komunis. Tuntutan rakyat Cina akan kesejahteraan rakyat bersama sebagian besar terletak pada nasionalisme Cina dengan akar historis yang kuat. Perpindahan kekuasaan pada tahun 1997, yakni dengan masuknya Hong Kong dari Kerajaan Inggris ke Pemerintah Cina merupakan momentum yang bersejarah. Di dalamnya menawarkan peluang tersendiri bagi terbentuknya kebanggaan nasionalis. Rencana serta janji penyatuan wilayah dengan Taiwan (dan respon-respon ancaman terhadap kedekatan dari Taiwan yang ingin memisahkan diri dari Cina) biasanya terangkum dalam wacana sejarah dan budaya Cina yang turun-temurun hingga friksi politik saat ini. Pembangunan rakyat (building community) melalui media nasionalisme Cina juga meminimalkan tatanan politik, misalnya dengan meningkatkan prestasi Cina di kancah internasional melalui bidang olahraga. Salah satu langkah nyatanya ialah dengan keberhasilan Cina di dalam kampanye tuan rumah Olimpiade musim panas 2008. Langkah ini tak lain ialah untuk mempertajam misi Cina untuk menggalang persatuan dan kebanggaan nasional melalui raihan medali di Olimpiade. Pendekatan nasionalis terhadap pembangunan rakyat membawa dampak lain pula. Protes di depan kedutaan besar AS di Beijing setelah AS secara tidak sengaja membom kedutaan besar Cina di Beograd selama perang saudara 1999 di kawasan bekas Yugoslavia adalah salah satu contoh dampak destruktif fanatisme Cina. Contoh lainnya ialah perang cyber yang dipelopori oleh hacker pro-Cina yang mengadakan pembajakan pesawat terbang AS dan pesawat tempur Cina sendiri pada 2001. Pendeknya, saat pembuat kebijakan Cina berkeinginan untuk mempromosikan nasionalisme Cina untuk memperkuat dukungan terhadap rezim penguasa, sentimen nasional pribumi Cina menjadi warna tersendiri yang menjurus ke arah negatif atau merugikan pihak lain. Di samping itu ketegangan antara usaha memperkuat persatuan dan hegemoni bangsa dan pengendalian diri nasionalisme tidak selalu menghasilkan kata sepakat. Terlebih lagi, banyak pihak yang menamakan diri mereka nasionalis Cina seperti Tibet dan Muslim Cina memandang nasionalisme dengan cara pandang yang dianggap tidak pada tempatnya. Download artikel selengkapnya

Hubungan harga saham dan nilai tukar di Indonesia

Judul Asli: Stock Price and Exchange Rate Interaction in Indonesia: An Empirical Review Penulis: W.N.W. Azman-Saini; Muzafar Shah Habibullah; M. Azali Pada tahun 1996 ekonomi negara Asia seperti Thailand kehilangan momentumnya. Aktivitas ekonomi di negara tersebut mengalami perlambatan dan sektor ekspor menunjukkan terjadinya pertumbuhan yang negatif. Semakin banyaknya nilai impor menyebabkan defisit akun yang ada saat itu semakin bertambah parah. Dalam waktu yang singkat krisis menjalar ke negara-negara kawasan Asia, seperti Filipina, Korea Selatan, Malaysia dan Indonesia. Tujuan dari penelitian ini ialah untuk memberlakukan ketentuan empiris mengenai hubungan sebab-akibat antara nilai tukar dan harga saham dengan menggunakan data frekuensi tinggi yang berasal dari Indonesia. Penelitian difokuskan pada isu-isu tingkat makro dan diharapkan memberikan kontribusi kepada penelitian-penelitian berikutnya. Langkah pertama ialah dengan mengadakan pengamatan mengenai model-model bivariat dan multivariat. Sebagian besar hasil penelitian empiris terdahulu menitikberatkan pada kerangka bivariat. Temuan yang diperoleh ialah bahwa kurangnya hubungan sebab-akibat didalam penelitian-penelitian terdahulu disebabkan oleh penghapusan variabel yang penting. Di sini perlu ditekankan bahwa penerapan sistem yang tidak sempurna yang kemudian berlanjut pada kegagalan untuk mengenali variabel penting lainnya, dapat berakhir pada hasil yang tidak diinginkan. Langkah kedua ialah dengan memanfaatkan metodologi ekonometrik yang memungkinkan dilakukannya penelitian mengenai hubungan sebab-akibat di dalam sistem-sistem yang meliputi proses time series yang dapat diintegrasikan serta dikointegrasikan. Penelitian ini berusaha untuk menjawab pertanyaan-pertanyaan berikut ini. apakah yang menjadi raih dari hubungan sebab-akibat antara harga saham dan nilai tukar? Apakah hubungan tersebut telah mengalami perubahan dalam tahun-tahun terakhir sejalan dengan terjadinya krisis keuangan di Asia pada tahun 1997? Dampak apakah yang telah diderita selama krisis ini karena adanya hubungan sebab-akibat? Apakah dampak yang ditimbulkan oleh pasar dunia terhadap hubungan sebab-akibat? Sementara itu pada pihak lain sekelompok ahli ekonomi meyakini bahwa penghargaan terhadap mata uang berdasarkan nilai tukar tertentu akan mempengaruhi peta kekuatan produk lokal dan neraca perdagangan suatu negara di dalam persaingan internasional. Secara umum model seperti ini memberikan kesimpulan bahwa nilai tukar memiliki hubungan yang positif dengan harga saham. Download artikel selengkapnya

Apakah Teori Itu ?

Judul asli: The Idea of Theory Hampir semua jurusan komunikasi pada tingkat perguruan tinggi mencantumkan setidaknya satu pembahasan mengenai teori komunikasi. Teori merupakan landasan akademis setiap disiplin ilmu; teori merupakan unsur yang penting mengingat fungsinya sebagai sarana untuk memberikan kode dan mengatur apa yang kita ketahui. Teori memungkinan segenap pihak untuk memindahkan informasi ke dalam pengetahuan. Kita tidak memandang dunia sebagai bit-bit data yang saling terpisah. Kita menghimpun, mengelompokkan, serta mensitesis informasi, mencari pola dan menelusuri hubungan-hubungan diantara data di dalam ruang lingkup kehidupan kita ini. Karena teori merupakan pengembangan dari sintesis pegnetahuan yang ada, maka kita perlu mengulang kembali dari awal dengan masing-masing penyelidikan.Sehingga titik tolak pemahaman setiap bidang pengetahuan terletak pada keterpaduan pengetahuan - atau teori - yang dikembangkan oleh para ahli terdahulu. Teori juga menuntun kita menuju pada variabel-variabel dan hubungan-hubungan yang penting. Sebuah teori menyerupai sebuah peta kota yang dapat kita gunakan sebagai petunjuk jalan, perubahan, pusat perbelanjaan, tempat rekreasi, dan sungai. Teori memuat kunci pembelajaran yang membantu kita untuk menafsirkan apa yang kita lihat. Tak jauh berbeda dengan penjelasan di atas, teori berfungsi sebagai buku pedoman untuk memahami, menjelaskan, menafsirkan, menilai, dan bertindak di dalam, dalam pembahasan ini, komunikasi yang terjadi di sekitar kita. Teori membantu menjelaskan apa yang diamati atau dilihat yang selanjutnya membantu pemahaman mengenai hubungan diantara berbagai pihak yang berbeda-beda serta penafsiran dan evaluasi secara lebih baik mengenai hal-hal yang terjadi disekitar kita. Hal demikian membuat teori memiliki kemampuan didalam memberikan bantuan observasional, dan mendukung prediksi kita terhadap hasil dan pengaruh di dalam data. Teori tak tergantikan posisinya didalam lingkungan akademis. Spekulasi teori dapat menjalankan peran fungsi heuristik, menjadi pedoman bagi serangkaian penelitian, menyatukan celah di dalam pengetahuan yang kita kuasai tentang sejumlah fenomena komunikasi. Akan tetapi teori tidak sebatas membantu didalam mengembangkan pengetahuan; teori juga membantu mengkomunikasikan pengetahuan. Teori menyerupai sekelompok beberapa pengetahuan yang digabung menjadi satu. Download artikel selengkapnya

16 July 2009

Konsep Paradigma Ekonomi

Paradigma sebagai contoh yang terpadu merupakan unsur inti dari apa yang menurut pembahasan di sini disebut sebagai aspek yang paling lengkap dan paling sulit dipahami. (Kuhn, 1970a, h 187).
Kuhn mendefinisikan paradigma, yang ia yakini sebagai konsep filosofi sentral dari kajiannya (1970an h. 234) sebagai berikut: "secara universal paradigma merupakan pencapaian ilmiah yang dapat dipahami yang dapat membantu kalangan praktisi untuk memecahkan permasalahan yang dihadapi (1970a, h.iii). Sementara itu Masterman berpendapat bahwa paradigma adalah sebuah 'gambaran' konkret dari sesuatu, katakanlah A, yang digunakan secara analogis untuk menjelaskan sesuatu yang lain yang juga konkret, katakanlah B. Paradigma adalah sebuah konstruksi yang dapat diketahui; sebuah artifak" (1970,h.78). Berdasarkan pengertian ini, kalangan ilmuwan biasanya menghasilkan kesepakatan mengenai prinsip dan aturan bersama didalam mendefinisikan suatu teori, aplikasi, dan instrumentasi saat mereka berusaha membentuk contoh klasik atau gambaran standar tertentu yang menjadi pedoman bagi perilaku ilmiah: agar dapat diuraikan melalui pendekatan lain, maka kalangan ilmuwan tersebut harus diberi petunjuk mengenai cara kerja yang harus mereka lakukan. Karakteristik strategis dari paradigma sebagai sebuah contoh adalah kekonretannya (sifat konkret dari paradigma), yang mampu menjawab teka-teki yang dihadapi oleh para ilmuwan.
Seperti sebagian besar bentuk teka-teki yang baik, teka-teki dalam kegiatan menabung memiliki potongan-potongan yang banyak ...(Kontlikoff, 1988:55).
Keynes, dalam bukunya The General Theory mengeluarkan hipotesis hubungan antara disposable income dan konsumsi dimana konsumsi menjadi fungsi dari disposable income. Data crosss-section menunjukkan bahwa rasio tabungan sangat berbeda diantara kelompok pendapatan. Untuk melengkapi fakta yang terjadi setelah terjadinya perang, konsumsi terbukti sangat kuat, terlepas dari terjadinya penurunan disposable income. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa fungsi konsumsi berperilaku secara berbeda diluar siklus yang dijalaninya selama periode waktu yang lama. Usaha untuk mencocokkan teori dengan fenomena sekuler, cross-sectional, dan siklik ini, dan untuk menghubungkannya satu sama lain dalam cara yang konsisten, menjadi perhatian utama bagi pihak-pihak yang berusaha untuk mengembangkan teori makroekonomi. Sumber: Concepts of Economic Paradigm Download artikel selengkapnya

Neo Liberal Manifesto

Author: Charles Peters One problem of the new liberal is the way he is misunderstood by the old liberals. Most of them have read what has been written here as advocating a return to the days of the Vietnam draft, robber barons, Tammany patronage, and coerced prayer. At the same time the new liberal must be willing to risk misunderstanding. Risk is indeed the essence of the movement - the risk of the person who has the different idea in industry or in government. That is why we place such a high value on the entrepreneur. The economic, social and political revitalization we seek is to come only through a dramatic increase in the number of people willing to put themselves on the line to take a chance at losing all, at looking ridiculous.
Risk taking is important not only in career terms but in the way one looks at the world and the possibilities it presents. If you see only a narrow range of choices, if you are a prisoner of conventional, respectable thinking, you are unlikely to find new ways out of our problems. Neoliberals look at the possibilities with a wide-angle lens. For example, some of us, who are on the whole internationalists and free traders, are willing to consider such bizarre ideas as getting out of NATO, forgetting about the Persian Gulf, and embargoing Japanese cars.
One problem we're trying to address with such suggestion is that American industry's ability to compete has been seriously impaired with the amount of money we have spent in the common defense compared to our competition and that we must find some dramatic way to redress the balance. Download complete text

Education in Kenya

Sources: Africa Speaks, Wikipedia
In 1963 the Kenyan government promised free primary education to its people. This promise did not take effect until 2003. Citizens are expected to contribute to the education fund by paying fees, taxes, and labour services. After contributing, most parents did not have the money to pay for their children’s education and were subsequently locked out of the school system.
The system of education was introduced by British colonists. After Kenya's independence on December 12, 1963, the Ominde Commission was set up to make changes in the educational system. This commission focused on national identity and unity. Changes in the subject content of history and geography were made to reflect the building of a national identity. Between 1964 to 1985, the 7-4-2-3-system was adopted – seven years of primary, four years of lower secondary, two years of upper secondary, and three years of university. All schools had a common curriculum.
In 1981, the Presidential Working Party on the Second University was commissioned to look at both the possibilities of setting up a second university in Kenya. They were also responsible for reforming the entire education system. The committee recommended that the 7-4-2-3 system be changed to an 8-4-4 system (eight years in primary, four years in secondary, and four years in university education). Table 1.2 shows the structure of the 8-4-4 system. The 8-4-4 system was launched in January 1985 and emphasized vocational subjects. It was assumed that this new structure would enable school dropouts at all levels to be either self-employed or to get employment in the non-formal sector. In January 2003, the Government of Kenya announced the introduction of free primary education. As a result, primary school enrolment increased by about 70%. However, secondary and tertiary education enrollment has not increased proportionally due to the fact that payment is still required for attendance. In class eight of primary school the Kenya Certificate of Primary Examination (K.C.P.E.) is written. The result of this examination is needed for placement at secondary school. In form four of secondary schools the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Examination (K.C.S.E.) is written. Students sit examinations in eight subjects. Private schools in Kenya cater generally for the middle and upper classes as well as the ex-patriate community. Many are largely affiliated with distinct religious organisations such as Oshwal Academy which is owned and managed by the OERB of the Oshwal community (Kenyan-Indians following Jainism) as well as various Catholic (Saint Mary's School Nairobi), Missionary (Rift Valley Academy) and Islamic (Aga Khan Academy) affiliated schools. These organisations are generally in charge of funding for the schools, and do not usually bias the curriculum or activities to reflect these ties, especially for non-adherent students. Most private day schools in Kenya are located within Nairobi and Mombasa, with boarding schools generally located in the countryside or the outskirts of town. This is a clear parallel to the British tradition of upper and upper-middle class families sending their children to expensive boarding schools that offer extensive grounds and facilities. The schools themselves are similar in a sense to the tradition of British public schools, with a lot of private schools in Nairobi either being based on the public school form, e.g. Brookhouse School, or having once been British public schools under colonial rule, e.g. Saint Mary's School, Nairobi and Kenton College.

8 July 2009

Michael Jackson's Timeline

Aug. 29, 1958: Born at 12:13 AM as Michael Joseph Jackson in Gary, Indiana, to Katherine Esther Scruse and Joseph Walter Jackson. 1962/1963: Michael becomes a member of the Jackson 5 along with his brothers Tito, Jackie, Jermaine, and Marlon. He is lead singer. Their father, Joe, is their manager. There first playing gig is at a place called Mr. Lucky's. 1969 First single with Jackson 5, I Want You Back 1972 First single, Ben, was released. Released his debut album Got To Be There. 1979 His monumental album, Off the Wall, starting his superstar status 1980 Thriller, album with 26 million copies sold 1984 Gets his star put on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. 1985 Co-writes "We Are the World" with Lionel Richie. 1987 Bad, album with 8 million copies sold Supposedly tries to buy the "Elephant Man"s (John Merrick) skeleton for a reported one million dollars. 1988 Autobiography, Moonwalk and cleft surgery in his chin Moves to the Neverland Valley Ranch in California's Santa Ynez Valley. 1991 Dangerous, album with 7 million copies sold 1992 A West African village located in Gabon, Ivory Coast crowns him 'King Sani.' Founded "Heal the World Foundation", an organization that will help improve the lives of children everywhere. 1993 First TV interview in 14 years with Oprah Winfrey 1994 Plaintiff suit by Los Angeles and Santa Barbara district attorneys and Married Lisa Marie Presley 1995 Released the album HIStory:Past, Present, Future Book 1. 1997 Divorced from Presley and married Debbie Rowe 1999 Divorced from Rowe 2001 Invincible, album with 2.1 million copies with only two hits Inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Michael Jackson's death Following is a timeline of key events since Michael Jackson lost consciousness and was rushed to hospital in Los Angeles on Thursday. (All times PDT) THURSDAY, JUNE 25 11:30 a.m. - Jackson reportedly received his daily shot of Demerol -- an narcotic painkiller -- at his rental home in the Holmby Hills neighborhood of Los Angeles. He goes into cardiac arrest about 30 minutes later. 12:21 p.m. - An unidentified man makes a 911 emergency call from the house, saying Jackson is unconscious and not breathing. Paramedics arrive a few minutes later, and treat him for 42 minutes. He is rushed to the nearby Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center. 2:26 p.m. - Jackson is pronounced dead at the hospital. His body is flown by helicopter to the Los Angeles County Coroner's office, about 17 miles away near downtown Los Angeles. 4:35 p.m. - The Los Angeles County Coroner confirms Jackson's death. FRIDAY, JUNE 26 2:20 p.m. - The Los Angeles County Coroner says an autopsy did not reveal any signs of foul play or external trauma, and orders toxicology tests that could take up to six weeks to complete. 9:30 p.m. - Jackson's body is released to his family. SATURDAY, JUNE 27 11:47 a.m. - Celebrity gossip news site TMZ.com reports that Jackson's family has requested a second autopsy. 4 p.m. - The celebrity website TMZ.com reports that a second autopsy is underway at an undisclosed location in Los Angeles, on the orders of the Jackson family. 7 p.m. - Jackson's personal physician, Texas cardiologist Dr. Conrad Murray, who was with the singer when he collapsed, is questioned again by Los Angeles police. (Reporting by Dean Goodman; editing by Dan Whitcomb) Source: Reuters, USA Today, Twoop

7 July 2009

Bruce Springsteen

Sources: Bruce Springsteen, Wikipedia, Last Fm
Bruce Frederick Joseph Springsteen (born September 23, 1949), nicknamed "The Boss", is an American singer-songwriter. He records and tours with the E Street Band. Springsteen is widely known for his brand of heartland rock infused with pop hooks, poetic lyrics, and Americana sentiments centered on his native New Jersey. Springsteen's recordings have tended to alternate between commercially accessible rock albums and somber folk-oriented works. Much of his status stems from the concerts and marathon shows in which he and the E Street Band perform intense ballads, rousing anthems, and party rock and roll songs, amongst which he intersperses whimsical or deeply emotional stories. His most famous albums, Born to Run and Born in the U.S.A., epitomize his penchant for finding grandeur in the struggles of daily life in America. He has gradually become identified with liberal politics. He is also noted for his support of various relief and rebuilding efforts in New Jersey and elsewhere, and for his response to the September 11th attacks, on which his album The Rising reflects. He has earned numerous awards for his work, including nineteen Grammy Awards, two Golden Globes and an Academy Award, and continues to have a strong global fan base. He has sold more than 65 million albums in the United States and 120 million worldwide. Springsteen’s lyrics often concern men and women struggling to make ends meet. In this sense he was sometimes compared to Woody Guthrie. He has gradually become identified with progressive politics. Springsteen is also noted for his support of various relief and rebuilding efforts in New Jersey and elsewhere, and for his response to the September 11, 2001 attacks, on which his album The Rising reflects. Springsteen’s recordings have tended to alternate between commercially accessible rock albums and somber folk-oriented works. Much of his iconic status stems from the concerts and marathon shows in which he and the E Street Band present intense ballads, rousing anthems, and party rock and roll songs, amongst which Springsteen intersperses long, whimsical or deeply emotional stories. Springsteen probably is best known for his album Born in the U.S.A. (1984), which sold 15 million copies in the U.S. alone and became one of the best-selling albums of all time with seven singles hitting the top 10, and the massively successful world tour that followed it. The title track was a bitter commentary on the treatment of Vietnam veterans, some of whom were Springsteen's friends and bandmates. The song was widely misinterpreted as jingoistic, and in connection with the 1984 presidential campaign became the subject of considerable folklore. Springsteen also turned down several million dollars offered by Chrysler Corporation for using the song in a car commercial. (In later years, Springsteen performed the song accompanied only with acoustic guitar to make the song's original meaning more explicitly clear. An acoustic version also appeared on Tracks, a later album.) "Dancing in the Dark" was the biggest of seven hit singles from Born in the U.S.A., peaking at No. 2 on the Billboard music charts. The music video for the song featured a young Courteney Cox dancing on stage with Springsteen, an appearance which helped kickstart the actress's career. The song Cover Me was written by Springsteen for Donna Summer, but his record company persuaded him to keep it for the new album. A big fan of Summer's work, Springsteen wrote another one for her, "Protection". A number of the videos for the album were made by noted film directors Brian De Palma or John Sayles. During the Born in the U.S.A. Tour he met actress Julianne Phillips. They were married in Lake Oswego, Oregon, on May 13, 1985, surrounded by intense media attention. Opposites in background, their marriage was not to be long-lived. Springsteen's 1987 album Tunnel of Love described some of his unhappinesses in the relationship and during the subsequent Tunnel of Love Express tour, Springsteen took up with backup singer Patti Scialfa, as reported by many tabloids. Subsequently, Phillips and Springsteen filed for divorce in 1988.[19] The divorce was finalized in 1989.
(Bruce Springsteen's autograph)

Indonesia Election 2009

Indonesia is going to hold a President Election tomorrow (8/7, local time). The election is going to present three running candidates: the former president Megawati Soekarnoputri, the incumbent Susilo Bambang Yudoyono, and the incumbent VP M. Jusuf Kalla. They all have passed presidential candidate debates last week so people of Indonesia are expected to be able to value their choice on what these candidates have presented.
One significant problem that shadows this nation is a struggle in creating a good governance. Developing countries indeed have unsteady multi-aspect situations. Corruption, inequalities, poor public services, are among them, which lead to the developing countries to unachieved goals. This phenomenon needs hard works of whosoever leading the nation. A people-committed leadership is the basic need for bringing the country into better circumstances and more prosperous constituents. I do believe that it is very important to lead a nation with huge population, large territory like Indonesia. Strong commitments to every work program in every aspect of life will be costly as well as time and energy consuming.
The future of Indonesia will rely on the capability of its new government, that must administer from 2009 to 2014. There will not be a revolutionary change, however, in my opinion. What may occur are corrections and remedies of the current situation. Promises during the campaigns must be realized by real works. Therefore, it is important for Megawati, Yudoyono, or Kalla, to present as realistic programs as possible. So far, Kalla is the most realistic planner. I am impressed by his campaign on "people's economy in autonomous manner" (ekonomi kerakyatan melalui kemandirian). It is a small talk but a heavy weight idea. When the whole nation starts thinking about local autonomy, there is a "must do" project that should be concerned: spirit of autonomy. Building a strong character of hard workers in a hundred millions-inhabited country means that every citizen is expected to put himself/herself in active roles. When somebody still thinks about subsidies from the central government, he or she must not be ready of even thinking or dreaming about local autonomy.
I can conclude that all candidates have shown their prominence in order to preserve their accountability toward the Republic of Indonesia Number One (RI-1). I also put weight on Jusuf Kalla for my most realistic reasion: his realistic program. JK is underdog and perhaps deserving to lose. But his nothing to lose manner reminds me to a strong but simple quote: "a looser gets lucky sometimes". His simple plans can bring our people to a better place. Indonesians who have been "expendable" can even be luckier than slumdog millionaires.

5 July 2009

Neoliberalism

Neoliberalism is a label for economic liberalism used only by critics of the doctrine. The central principle of neoliberal policy is a noninterventionist "free market". The prime global advocate[citation needed] is the International Chamber of Commerce in Paris, whose self-defined trade and commerce mandate is: "to break down barriers to international trade and investment so that all countries can benefit from improved living standards through increased trade and investment flows". Neoliberalism is a terrible name for an important movement. Economic growth is most is important now. It is essential to almost everything else we want to achieve. Our hero is the risk-taking entrepreneur who creates new jobs and better products. Liberalism has become a movement of those who have arrived, who care more about preserving their own gains than about helping those in need.
Broadly speaking, neoliberalism seeks to transfer part of the control of the economy from public to the private sector,to, ostensibly, bring a more efficient government and to improve economic indicators of the nation. The definitive statement of the concrete policies advocated by neoliberalism is often taken to be John Williamson's "Washington Consensus", a list of policy proposals that appeared to have gained consensus approval among the Washington-based international economic organizations (like the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank). Williamson's list included ten points:
* Fiscal policy discipline; * Redirection of public spending from subsidies ("especially indiscriminate subsidies") toward broad-based provision of key pro-growth, pro-poor services like primary education, primary health care and infrastructure investment; * Tax reform – broadening the tax base and adopting moderate marginal tax rates; * Interest rates that are market determined and positive (but moderate) in real terms; * Competitive exchange rates; * Trade liberalization – liberalization of imports, with particular emphasis on elimination of quantitative restrictions (licensing, etc.); any trade protection to be provided by law and relatively uniform tariffs; * Liberalization of inward foreign direct investment; * Privatization of state enterprises; * Deregulation – abolition of regulations that impede market entry or restrict competition, except for those justified on safety, environmental and consumer protection grounds, and prudent oversight of financial institutions; and, * Legal security for property rights.
Impacts Neoliberal movements ultimately changed the world's economies in many ways, but some analysts argue that the extent to which the world has liberalized may often be overstated. Some of the past thirty years' changes are clear and unambiguous, like:
# Growth in international trade and cross-border capital flows # Elimination of trade barriers # Cutbacks in defense spending, although it is unclear whether these reductions are associated with neoliberalism or the peace dividend that was supposed to accrue at the end of the Cold War # Cutbacks in public sector employment # The privatization of previously public-owned enterprises # The transfer of the share of countries' economic wealth to the top economic percentiles of the population.
Other changes are not so apparent, and are debated in the literature: * Reduction in the size of governments. Governments do not appear to have shrunk wholesale. With the exception of exceptionally high-spending governments, government expenditures (as a percentage of GDP) appears to have stayed the same since 1980. Most of the cuts to government spending appear to have been a temporary phenomenon that took place during the 1990s. * Social welfare spending. Many governments have generally spent more on health, education, social security, welfare and/or housing. However, populations have increased and populations have aged in affluent countries. As well, some of these services (such as health care and education in the U.S.) are also very inefficiently organized. Criticisms:
Notable opponents to neoliberalism in theory or practice include economists Joseph Stiglitz, Amartya Sen, and Robert Pollin, linguist Noam Chomsky, geographer David Harvey, and the anti-globalization movement in general, including groups such as ATTAC. Critics of neoliberalism and its inequality-enhancing policies argue that not only is neoliberalism's critique of socialism (as unfreedom) wrong, but neoliberalism cannot deliver the liberty that is supposed to be one of its strong points. Daniel Brook's "The Trap" (2007), Robert Frank's "Falling Behind" (2007), Robert Chernomas and Ian Hudson's "Social Murder" (2007), and Richard G. Wilkinson's "The Impact of Inequality" (2005) all claim high inequality is spurred by neoliberal policies and produces profound political, social, economic, health, and environmental constraints and problems. The economists and policy analysts at the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives (CCPA) offer inequality-reducing social democratic policy alternatives to neoliberal policies. In addition, a significant opposition to neoliberalism has grown in Latin America, a region that has been seen only limited implementation of neoliberal policies. Prominent Latin American opponents include the Zapatista Army of National Liberation rebellion, and the governments of Venezuela, Bolivia and Cuba.
Some critics view neoliberalism as both an economic and political project aimed at reconfiguring class relations in societies. They allege that many "core countries" middle class and "labor aristocracy" families have become constrained by the cascading costs created by the conspicuous consumption of goods and services encouraged in the system, as a result many are losing allotments of time once used for personal development, recreation, family, community, and citizenship as a result of lower wages and inflation coupled with a decrease in the amount of or opportunity for advanced formal education and/or training. Moreover, they claim workers have been so heavily disciplined by capital and the capitalist state that, as Alan Greenspan said, they are "traumatized" and unable to politically moderate capitalist aggression. Daniel Brook's "The Trap: Selling Out to Stay Afloat in Winner-Take-All America" (2007) describes the anti-democratic effect of decreased middle class welfare. The massive U.S. military-industrial complex adds an extra layer of repression to working class "traumatization," according to (Harvey 2005), making resistance and inequality-reducing policy innovation seem unfeasible to most workers. A "traumatized" working class allows the capitalist class absolute reign, which Harvey claims – citing the economic crises of 1873 and the 1920s – to be disastrous for economies around the globe, states, and working class people; though, he points out, on average capitalists were not negatively impacted by these crises
References: Wikipedia, A Neoliberalism Manifesto, A Neoliberal Education.

4 July 2009

Arus Samudera

Jenis arus samudera: Arus Atlantik Utara Arus Atlantik Utara. Dari 40o LU dan 40o BW. Menuju ke arah ENE di daerah Inggris dan ke arah Norwegia (0-20). Arus Portugal. Terjadi di sebelah timur Atlantik Utara lepas pantai Portugal (0-25) Arus Canary. Dari Tanjung St. Vincent menuju Cape Blanco dengan arah SSW (10-35) Arus Pantai Afrika Utara. Bagian dari arus pantai Afrika yang berasal dari Tanjung Verde dan bergabung dengan arus Guinea (0-25) Arus North-east Trade. Antara 10o LU dan 30o LU menuju arah SW (10-35). Arus ini kemudian bergabung dengan Arus Khatulistiwa Utara. Arus Khatulistiwa Utara. Berasal dari arah barat pada 10o LU (10-40). Sering bergabung dengan bagian Khatulistiwa Selatan dan menuju Laut Karibia. Arus Balik Khatulistiwa (Equatorial Counter Stream). Antara Khatulistiwa Selatan dan Khatulistiwa Utara, dengan arah 5o LU, biasanya terjadi arus kontra di sebelah timur, kadang-kadang pula dari arah barat dengan arah 50o LU (10-30) Arus Guinea. Menjauhi arah timur kemudian menuju ke Teluk Guinea sepanjang tahun (10-60). Arus Laut Karibia. Terdiri atas volume air yang sangat besar yang mengalir menuju Laut Karibia dari arus Khatulistiwa Utara dan Selatan dengan arah WNW ke ujung barat Kuba (10-30). Arus Bahama. Cabang dari Arus Khatulistiwa Utara yang menuju arah WNW di luar Hindia Barat dan bergabung dengan Arus Teluk. (10-25). Arus Teluk. Terdiri atas volume air yang sangat besar yang jatuh di atas Laut Karibia. Dari ujung barat Kuba arus induk menuju ke Semenanjung Florida. Setelah melewati Semenanjung Florida (30-100), lalu menuju ke Arus Teluk dan volumenya bertambah oleh adanya arus Bahama, kemudian mengikuti garis kecenderungan 100 fathom ke Tanjung Haterras (20-70). Dari Tanjung Haterras arus berputar ke arah timur dan berpendar. Pada posisi selatan Grand Banks, arus terbentuk dari arah Timur (5-35). Arus kemudian bergabung dengan Arus Atlantik Utara dengan arah 40o LU - 40o BB. Arus Greenland Timur. Bergerak turun melintasi pantai timur Greenland dengan arah SW (5-10). Arus Greenland Barat. Semua volume air dari arus terdahulu berputar mengitari Tanjung Farewell dengan arah NW ke pantai barat Greenland (5-10). Pada lintang 70o LU bagian dari arus Greenland Barat menuju ke barat melintasi Semenanjung Davis. Dari Laut Kutub arus menuju ke arah Selatan hingga Teluk Baffin, dan bergabung dengan sisa arus Greenland Barat, yang mengalami rekurvasi pada posisi 75o LU. Gabungan dari arus ini mengalir ke bawah bagian barat Teluk Baffin, kemudian bersatu dengan cabang arus lain pada posisi 70o LU. Arus Labrador. Lanjutan dari arus atas SSE bergerak menuju ke pantai Labrador, membawa es ke arah Atlantik. Cabang timur dari arus ini akan bergerak turun menuju ujung timur Grand Banks (5-20) dan mengalami rekurvasi ke utara. Arus Cabot. Arus ini merupakan cabang arus barat dari arus Labrador. Bergerak melintasi Semenanjung Belle Isle kemudian keluar melewati Semenanjung Cabot, berputar ke arah SW. Arus kemudian bergerak di lingkungan Arus Teluk menuju ke Tanjung Haterras (0-25). Arus Atlantik Selatan Arus Kepulauan Falkland (Malvinas). Dari Tanjung Horn ke arah NNE hingga mendekati River Plate. Sejumlah bagian arus bergerak ke Selatan Kepulauan Falkland (Malvinas) dan berputar ke arah timur (10-30). Arus Atlantik Selatan. Dari Tanjung Horn ke arah Tanjung Good Hope dengan arah ENE (0-40) sebelum munculnya angin. Arus Benguela atau Arus Afrika Selatan. Berpusat di lepas pantai Tanjung Good Hope, bagian dari Arus Agulhas yang memasuki daerah Atlantik Selatan dan bergabung dengan arus dari lepas pantai Atlantik Selatan dengan arah NNW naik ke daerah pantai Afrika dan memasuki Khatulistiwa Selatan. (10-30). Arus Khatulistiwa Selatan. Biasanya arus terjadi sebelum adanya Trade Wind antara Khatulistwa dan garis lintang 20o LS (10-45). Cabang arus bagian utara menuju ke arah NW hingga ke NE pantai Brasil (20-80). Arus kemudian bergabung dengan Arus Khatulistiwa Utara memasuki Laut Karibia. Arus Brasil. Merupakan Cabang bagian selatan arus Khatulistiwa Selatan, yang telah mengalami pembelokan oleh pantai Brasil. Mengarah ke SW dan kadang-kadang hingga River Plate (10-35), selanjutnya melengkung ke arah timur untuk bergabung dengan Arus Atlantik Selatan. Arus Pasifik Utara Arus Balik khatulistiwa (Equatorial Counter Stream.). Berasal dari arah antara 8o - 11o LU, dari 160o BT (10-40). Arus Khatulistiwa Utara. Antara 11o - 25o LU arus menuju ke arah barat sebelum terbentuknya Trade Winds (10-40). Pada sebelah barat lautan berputar ke arah kanan dan membentuk Arus Kuro Siwo atau Arus Jepang. Arus Kuro Siwo (arus Jepang). Bergerak melewati Kepulauan Formosa dan Jepang (10-50) dan selanjutnya perlahan berputar ke kanan. Arus Pasifik Utara. Berada pada garis lintang 50o LU ke arah timur, karena adanya tiupan angin (10-20). Arus Oya Siwo. Arus dingin yang menuju ke arah SW dari Semenanjung Bering turun ke pantai Kamchatka hingga ke wilayah utara Jepang (10-20). Arus Pantai Alaska. Adalah cabang yang mengarah ke utara dari Arus Pasifik Utara yang berputar berlawanan dengan arah jarum jam mengelilingi pantai Alaska (10-25) Arus Pantai California dan Meksiko. Cabang sebelah selatan dari arus Pasifik Utara, bergerak turun ke pantai California dan Meksiko (0-30). Bergabung dengan arus Khatulistiwa Utara.

2 July 2009

Today's football is a money-laundering vehicle

Source: Soccerway

PARIS (AFP) - The multi-billion dollar global football sector has become a vehicle for money laundering and other forms of corruption, requiring an international response, a study published Wednesday said.

"Money laundering through the football sector is revealed to be deeper and more complex than previously understood," said the Financial Action Task Force (FATF), an intergovernmental body formed to fight money laundering and terrorist financing.

The Paris-based group said its analysis found that "there is more than anecdotal evidence indicating that a variety of money flows and or financial transactions may increase the risk of money laundering through football."

The football sector has in addition provided opportunities for other criminal activities such as trafficking in human beings and drugs, according to the FATF.

Based on responses to a questionnaire received last October from government and football authorities in 25 countries, more than 20 cases of football-related money laundering were detected, the task force said.

The cases ranged from the smuggling of large amounts of cash derived from apparently illegal transactions to more complex operations.

"Investments in football clubs can be used to integrate money of illegal origin in the financial system," the study found. "Football clubs are indeed seen by criminals as the perfect vehicles for money laundering."

Football since the early 1990s has undergone massive commercialisation through expanded television rights and corporate ownership. Player transfer payments have now reached "astounding dimensions," the study said.

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